• BIOETHICAL DEBATE REGARDING GYMS NEED FOR MEDICAL CERTIFICATES FOR AMATEUR SPORTSMEN

      Dario Palhares; Flávia Squinca; Antônio Carlos Rodrigues (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2016)
      Sports Medicine comprises two branches: one, related to professional athletes and the other, related to the general population vis a vis sports and physical activity. The bioethical conflicts involving professional athletes are different from those of amateur practitioners. There is a constant deliberation related to the requirement of medical evaluation before admission to a gym. There are regional laws that make the medical certificate an obligatory document. It is observed that in the creation of these laws, the arguments are guided by a way to transfer responsibility from the gym to the physician who has attended the client. In a sense, the laws that indiscriminately require medical certificates subvert the ethics of the medical practice because the medical officer is not capable to assure that a given patient has no medical issue; instead the medical work is to try to identify the cause to a complaint. The gyms provide clients with orientation and supervision by providing them with qualified professionals. Although the need for medical certificates for everybody is unethical, a detailed medical evaluation is needed for gym clients who may present clinical manifestations during exercise or have some specific clinical conditions.
    • Bioethical debate regarding gyms’ need for medical certificates for amateur sportsmen

      Palhares, Dario; Squinca, Flávia; Rodrigues, Antônio Carlos (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2016-06-01)
      Sports Medicine comprises two branches: one, related to professional athletes and the other, related to the general population vis a vis sports and physical activity. The bioethical conflicts involving professional athletes are different from those of amateur practitioners. There is a constant deliberation related to the requirement of medical evaluation before admission to a gym. There are regional laws that make the medical certificate an obligatory document. It is observed that in the creation of these laws, the arguments are guided by a way to transfer responsibility from the gym to the physician who has attended the client. In a sense, the laws that indiscriminately require medical certificates subvert the ethics of the medical practice because the medical officer is not capable to assure that a given patient has no medical issue; instead the medical work is to try to identify the cause to a complaint. The gyms provide clients with orientation and supervision by providing them with qualified professionals. Although the need for medical certificates for everybody is unethical, a detailed medical evaluation is needed for gym clients who may present clinical manifestations during exercise or have some specific clinical conditions.
    • BIOETHICAL POSITIONING OF SPANISH HEALTH PROFESSIONALS: A SEMI-QUANTITATIVE STUDY

      Marta Elena Losa Iglesias; Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2015)
      The present study was undertaken to examine the positions of Spanish health professionals on a variety of bioethical issues and to determine the relationships between these positions and the professionals religious beliefs and political views. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals randomly selected from a database of Spanish health professionals who had received solid training in bioethics. A structured questionnaire was designed that contained six closed questions on positions on biomedical advances and science and biotechnology (eugenics, use of nonimplanted embryos for experimental purposes, human cloning, and the idea that science should have limits) and the respondents sociopolitical and religious views, and assessment scales were developed for the responses. The distribution of the responses was subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA). For the items with responses scored on a Likert scale, the positions taken were moderately adverse, and the vast majority of respondents believed that there should be limits to science. Religious convictions had greater influence on the responses than political orientation. There was evidence that liberal beliefs corresponded with what the authors consider to be more progressive ideas about the bioethics issues addressed in the study. The important questions of bioethics require an interdisciplinary approach and a combination of state and private-sector action to strengthen the links between religion and science, keep general knowledge up to date, and properly train biotechnology professionals.
    • Bioethics at the Pan American Health Organization. Origins, development, and challenges

      Fernando Lolas Stepke (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2006)
      Bioethics is the use of dialog for formulating and solving moral dilemmas posed by the progress of science and technology. Concerns about the survival of life on Earth and of the relations between medicine and the humanities were the origins of bioethical thinking. From a conceptual point of view it constitutes a social process governed by emotions, a technical procedure aimed at correct decision-making, and an academic product influencing scholarship. Since its establishment as a technical program at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), bioethics has contributed to the training of professionals, to the establishment of committees and commissions, and to the improvement of clinical, research, and administrative practices in the countries of the Americas and the Caribbean. The Bioethics Unit has established advanced programs in five universities, promoted research and advocacy initiatives, and sponsored courses and seminars in 26 countries of the region. After an analysis of its development and evolution, this report does not recommend professionalization of bioethics and proposes further actions to train professionals and researchers, a sustained effort to educate the public, and the assurance of independence from political or economic influences for the Bioethics Unit established at PAHO. The organization should retain its voice in the moral dilemmas and continue providing not only evidence-based but also value-based knowledge to its users and all stakeholders in the health sector.
    • BIOETHICS AT THE PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION: Origins, development, and challenges

      Lolas Stepke,Fernando (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2006-01-01)
      Bioethics is the use of dialog for formulating and solving moral dilemmas posed by the progress of science and technology. Concerns about the survival of life on Earth and of the relations between medicine and the humanities were the origins of bioethical thinking. From a conceptual point of view it constitutes a social process governed by emotions, a technical procedure aimed at correct decision-making, and an academic product influencing scholarship. Since its establishment as a technical program at the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), bioethics has contributed to the training of professionals, to the establishment of committees and commissions, and to the improvement of clinical, research, and administrative practices in the countries of the Americas and the Caribbean. The Bioethics Unit has established advanced programs in five universities, promoted research and advocacy initiatives, and sponsored courses and seminars in 26 countries of the region. After an analysis of its development and evolution, this report does not recommend professionalization of bioethics and proposes further actions to train professionals and researchers, a sustained effort to educate the public, and the assurance of independence from political or economic influences for the Bioethics Unit established at PAHO. The organization should retain its voice in the moral dilemmas and continue providing not only evidence-based but also value-based knowledge to its users and all stakeholders in the health sector
    • BIOETHICS FROM A PRAGMATIC PERSPECTIVE: ETHICAL ISSUES IN BIOPHARMACEUTICALS

      Fournel,Michael A (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2005-01-01)
      In recent times competitive, commercial and fiscal pressures have introduced new and challenging issues for the pharmaceutical industry. This essay identifies some of these issues and proposes mechanisms for their resolution. This overview is not intended to serve as a comprehensive assessment, but rather as an introduction to and call for utilization of bioethics as a tool in the resolution of practical issues that otherwise could limit the development and introduction of important therapeutic entities into the clinic
    • BIOETHICS FROM A PRAGMATIC PERSPECTIVE: ETHICAL ISSUES IN BIOPHARMACEUTICALS

      Michael A. Fournel (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2005)
      In recent times competitive, commercial and fiscal pressures have introduced new and challenging issues for the pharmaceutical industry. This essay identifies some of these issues and proposes mechanisms for their resolution. This overview is not intended to serve as a comprehensive assessment, but rather as an introduction to and call for utilization of bioethics as a tool in the resolution of practical issues that otherwise could limit the development and introduction of important therapeutic entities into the clinic.
    • Bioethik: Eine Einführung

      Lolas Stepke,Fernando (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2003-01-01)
    • BIOETICA Y ORGANIZACION FUNCIONAL DE LA SOCIEDAD

      Morandé Court, Pedro (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2002-01-01)
      El intercambio interdisciplinario de la bioética, difícil y laborioso, es el objeto de este articulo. Reflexiona, en particular, sobre dos temáticas. En primer lugar, respecto de la eventual novedad y creatividad de la bioética desde el punto de vista del pensamiento. Esta reflexión se desarrolla esencialmente en el ámbito de la filosofía, a través de una pregunta que orienta el análisis: ¿qué agrega la bioética al tradicional debate ético que se ha producido en el seno de todas las culturas? En segundo lugar, por medio de un enfoque de tipo sociológico, sobre el espacio que ocupa la bioética en una sociedad multifuncional. En esta perspectiva, este texto se interroga sobre la posibilidad de desarrollar un concepto de bioética que abarque el conjunto de la sociedad, es decir, que genere la misma legitimidad y estima en todos los sectores funcionalmente diferenciados
    • Bioética ambiental y ecopedagogía: una tarea pendiente

      Sarmiento Medina, Pedro José (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2013-06-01)
      El presente trabajo busca recuperar la responsabilidad ambiental como una noción estrictamente bioética y, a su vez, renovar la necesidad de acciones educativas como la única estrategia viable en el marco de una protección ambiental. Examina algunas estrategias pedagógicas y fundamenta las líneas conceptuales generales para una educación ambiental. Como conclusión, señala que es preciso aprender a tomar decisiones de largo plazo, que integren la economía, la ecología, la educación y el desarrollo social como elementos clave en el manejo del tema en un nivel local y regional; no obstante, es necesario crear una cultura ambiental que motive cambios estructurales de comportamiento individual y colectivo. Se trata de un cambio cultural dependiente de la ecopedagogía, que necesariamente propone nuevos comportamientos, herramientas y valores, reflejados en actitudes y estilo de vida verdaderamente consistentes.
    • BIOÉTICA E BIODIREITO: AS IMPLICAÇÕES DE UM REENCONTRO

      Pereira e Silva,Reinaldo (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2002-01-01)
      Este estudo tem por objeto de investigação o estatuto da vida humana desde a concepção, encontrando justificação na complexa crise político-jurídica atual, documentada de forma particularmente emblemática pela atitude omissa das legislações, inclusive a brasileira, em face das inovações tecnológicas no âmbito biomédico. O objetivo geral é demonstrar que, muito embora os conhecimentos nas áreas da embriologia clínica e da genética médica dissipem quaisquer dúvidas sobre o início da individualidade humana, as reflexões ética e jurídica, quando assentadas em premissas discordantes com a "natureza humana", obscurecem a qualidade de pessoa que o ser humano expressa desde sua concepção. Em outras palavras, o objetivo geral se envolve com a demonstração de que somente se pode falar em direito e em ética, para muito além das abordagens vazias de conteúdo, quando se orienta a projeção reflexiva em conformidade com a natureza humana
    • Bioética e biodireito: as implicações de um reencontro

      Reinaldo Pereira e Silva (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2002)
      Este estudo tem por objeto de investigação o estatuto da vida humana desde a concepção, encontrando justificação na complexa crise político-jurídica atual, documentada de forma particularmente emblemática pela atitude omissa das legislações, inclusive a brasileira, em face das inovações tecnológicas no âmbito biomédico. O objetivo geral é demonstrar que, muito embora os conhecimentos nas áreas da embriologia clínica e da genética médica dissipem quaisquer dúvidas sobre o início da individualidade humana, as reflexões ética e jurídica, quando assentadas em premissas discordantes com a "natureza humana", obscurecem a qualidade de pessoa que o ser humano expressa desde sua concepção. Em outras palavras, o objetivo geral se envolve com a demonstração de que somente se pode falar em direito e em ética, para muito além das abordagens vazias de conteúdo, quando se orienta a projeção reflexiva em conformidade com a natureza humana.
    • Bioética en América Latina. Una década de evolución

      León Correa, Francisco Javier (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2010-06-01)
    • BIOÉTICA EN LA MALLA CURRICULAR DE ODONTOLOGÍA

      Guerra, Rina Ana (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2006-01-01)
      El propósito de este trabajo es sondear la situación actual de la bioética como asignatura en el currículo de formación de grado de profesionales odontólogos en Argentina. También se presentan las características del perfil del egresado acorde con las exigencias tecnocientíficas, sociales y culturales actuales y, a partir de ello, se justifica la inclusión de la bioética en el currículo universitario como elemento formador para lograr dicho perfil. El objetivo último es hacer llamar la atención sobre la necesidad de tener, en la formación del odontólogo, un espacio de reflexión, donde la bioética, llamada ciencia del nuevo milenio, podría ser la opción más adecuada
    • BIOÉTICA EN NICARAGUA

      Ulloa González, Armando; Barrantes Monge, Melba de la Cruz (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2008-01-01)
      Este trabajo describe la situación de la bioética en Nicaragua, caracterizando las circunstancias y el contexto de las actividades de educación médica y las unidades prestadoras de servicios de salud. El desarrollo de un nuevo modelo de atención integral en salud, la implementación de políticas de salud que garanticen a la población el mayor acceso y gratuidad a los servicios, y los cambios acontecidos en los cuidados médicos, debidos en parte al reconocimiento creciente de una mayor autonomía de los pacientes y al uso creciente de nuevas tecnologías médicas, hace que se presenten algunas limitantes y dilemas en las unidades asistenciales y entre el personal de salud. La bioética en Nicaragua tiene un desarrollo incipiente: no está institucionalizada ni se han previsto los mecanismos formales que permitan resolver los problemas éticamente complejos, por lo tanto, constituye un gran reto por parte de las instituciones educativas y rectoras de la salud.
    • BIOÉTICA GLOBAL Y DERECHOS HUMANOS: ¿UNA POSIBLE FUNDAMENTACIÓN UNIVERSAL PARA LA BIOÉTICA? PROBLEMAS Y PERSPECTIVAS

      Borgoño Barros, Cristián (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2009-01-01)
      El artículo muestra la situación actual del debate en torno a la posibilidad de fundamentar una bioética de alcance universal. Se da particular atención al intento de invocar el paradigma de los derechos humanos, exhibiendo fuerzas y debilidades de este camino, que parece haber alcanzado una cierta madurez con la adopción de la Convención de Oviedo y la Declaración Universal sobre Bioética y Derechos Humanos de la UNESCO. Se postula que es necesario reconsiderar el concepto de dignidad humana de acuerdo con la intención de los redactores de la Declaración del 48, para evitar el peligro de fragmentación y ambigüedad de este concepto.
    • BIOÉTICA HERMENÉUTICA

      Villarroel,Raúl (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2000-06-01)
      Intentando sortear las dificultades que en la reflexión filosófica se plantean a la revitalización de un proyecto que busque hacer converger la ostensible diversidad de criterios morales característica de la época actual, se aborda una particular comprensión de la bioética a partir de claves hermenéuticas. De este modo se pretende exceder legítimamente el conjunto de dificultades ocasionadas por la tensión y la discontinuidad que se ha producido entre el desarrollo cognoscitivo y el desarrollo moral de la humanidad en dos ámbitos significativos: el de la salud y el del medio ambiente. Para ello se busca transitar desde el sistema acabado y definitivo del reduccionismo cientificista al borde diferencial interpretativo, donde ambas dimensiones enunciadas son atestiguadas, más bien, desde una condición intrínsecamente problemática, conjetural e imprevisible, siempre reticente a cualquier encapsulamiento univocista
    • Bioética Hermenéutica

      Raúl Villarroel (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2000)
      Intentando sortear las dificultades que en la reflexión filosófica se plantean a la revitalización de un proyecto que busque hacer converger la ostensible diversidad de criterios morales característica de la época actual, se aborda una particular comprensión de la bioética a partir de claves hermenéuticas. De este modo se pretende exceder legítimamente el conjunto de dificultades ocasionadas por la tensión y la discontinuidad que se ha producido entre el desarrollo cognoscitivo y el desarrollo moral de la humanidad en dos ámbitos significativos: el de la salud y el del medio ambiente. Para ello se busca transitar desde el sistema acabado y definitivo del reduccionismo cientificista al borde diferencial interpretativo, donde ambas dimensiones enunciadas son atestiguadas, más bien, desde una condición intrínsecamente problemática, conjetural e imprevisible, siempre reticente a cualquier encapsulamiento univocista.
    • Bioética ou bioéticas na evolução das sociedades

      Quezada S,Álvaro (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2007-06-01)