• Falta de sentido de vida y suicidio: ¿en qué circunstancias el paternalismo médico puede estar justificado?

      Espínola-Nadurille,Mariana; Sánchez-Barroso,José Antonio; Páez-Moreno,Ricardo; Sánchez-Guzmán,María Alejandra; Ramírez-Bermúdez,Jesús (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2014-06-01)
      Objetivos. Descripción de un caso clínico abordado a través de un enfoque bioético. Materiales y métodos. Por medio de la deliberación moral, se aclararon los hechos relevantes y se identificaron los problemas morales; se seleccionó el problema ético central y se plantearon cursos de acción. Resultados y conclusiones. En este caso clínico la solución más prudente incluyó el paternalismo justificado. La práctica de la deliberación moral es indispensable, porque las decisiones frecuentemente rebasan la técnica médica y exigen la ponderación de valores morales.
    • FALTA DE SENTIDO DE VIDA Y SUICIDIO: ¿EN QUÉ CIRCUNSTANCIAS EL PATERNALISMO MÉDICO PUEDE ESTAR JUSTIFICADO?

      Mariana Espínola-Nadurille; José Antonio Sánchez-Barroso; Ricardo Páez-Moreno; María Alejandra Sánchez-Guzmán; Jesús Ramírez-Bermúdez (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2014)
      Objetivos. Descripción de un caso clínico abordado a través de un enfoque bioético. Materiales y métodos. Por medio de la deliberación moral, se aclararon los hechos relevantes y se identificaron los problemas morales; se seleccionó el problema ético central y se plantearon cursos de acción. Resultados y conclusiones. En este caso clínico la solución más prudente incluyó el paternalismo justificado. La práctica de la deliberación moral es indispensable, porque las decisiones frecuentemente rebasan la técnica médica y exigen la ponderación de valores morales.
    • FERNANDO LOLAS STEPKE Y JOSÉ GERALDO DE FREITAS DRUMOND Fundamentos de uma antropologia bioética

      Tosta de Souza, Virgínio Cândido (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2008-01-01)
    • Filosofía médica

      Lolas Stepke,Fernando (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2020-10-01)
    • FINANCIAL AND NON-FINANCIAL CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS IN PSYCHIATRY

      Maj, Mario (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2009-11-01)
      A conflict of interests occurs when a doctor is unduly influenced by a secondary interest (i.e., a personal incentive) in his acts concerning one of the primary interests to which he is professionally committed (the welfare of patients, the progress of science or the education of students or residents). One specific variety of conflicts of interests has monopolized the attention of the scientific and lay press: the financial conflicts of interests arising from the relationships between doctors and drug companies. A large literature has described the many, sometimes subtle, ways by which a psychiatrist can be influenced in his prescribing habits or research activities by his relationships with the industry. Some empirical evidence is now available in this area. On the other hand, it has been pointed out that the current debate on this issue is sometimes "affectively charged", or fails to take into account that the interests of patients, families and mental health professionals and those of the industry may be often convergent. Other types of conflicts of interests are beginning now to be discussed. There is evidence that the allegiance of a researcher to a given school of thought may influence the results of studies comparing different psychotherapeutic techniques, thus colliding with the primary interest represented by the progress of science. Political commitment is also emerging as a source of conflicts of interests. Financial and non-financial conflicts of interests are widespread in psychiatric practice and research. They cannot be eradicated, but must be managed more effectively than is currently the case.
    • FRAMEWORKS FOR ETHICS IN PUBLIC HEALTH

      Jennings,Bruce (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2003-01-01)
      This paper constructs a conceptual framework for the normative study of public health. It argues that to develop discussions of ethics in public health without paying attention to the broader theoretical and ideological context of public health controversies and social conflicts will be of limited value. In defining that context, the author distinguishes three main types of ethical theory-utilitarianism, contractarianism, and communitarianism; and several varieties of political theory -liberal welfarism, liberal egalitarianism, libertarian liberalism, deliberative democracy, civic republicanism, and cultural conservatism. The meanings and interconnections of these theory formations are discussed. Illustrations to particular public health programs and issues are given. The paper also distinguishes four different types of applied ethical discourse in public health-professional ethics, advocacy ethics, applied ethics, and critical ethics. Each of these modes of ethics is important, but the development of work in critical ethics is the most important priority within the normative study of public health at present
    • Frameworks for ethics in public health

      Bruce Jennings (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2003)
      This paper constructs a conceptual framework for the normative study of public health. It argues that to develop discussions of ethics in public health without paying attention to the broader theoretical and ideological context of public health controversies and social conflicts will be of limited value. In defining that context, the author distinguishes three main types of ethical theory-utilitarianism, contractarianism, and communitarianism; and several varieties of political theory -liberal welfarism, liberal egalitarianism, libertarian liberalism, deliberative democracy, civic republicanism, and cultural conservatism. The meanings and interconnections of these theory formations are discussed. Illustrations to particular public health programs and issues are given. The paper also distinguishes four different types of applied ethical discourse in public health-professional ethics, advocacy ethics, applied ethics, and critical ethics. Each of these modes of ethics is important, but the development of work in critical ethics is the most important priority within the normative study of public health at present.
    • From Australopithecus to cyborgs. Are we facing the end of human evolution?

      Aznar,Justo; Burguete,Enrique (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2020-10-01)
      Abstract Social implementation of post-humanism could affect the biological evolution of living beings and especially that of humans. This paper addresses the issue from the biological and anthropological-philosophical perspectives. From the biological perspective, reference is made first to the evolution of hominids until the emergence of Homo sapiens, and secondly, to the theories of evolution with special reference to their scientific foundation and the theory of extended heredity. In the anthropological-philosophical part, the paradigm is presented according to which human consciousness, in its emancipatory zeal against biological nature, must “appropriate” the roots of its physis to transcend the human and move towards a more “perfect” entity; we also assess the theory that refers this will to the awakening of the cosmic consciousness in our conscious matter. Finally, it assesses whether this post-humanist emancipatory paradigm implies true evolution or, instead, an involution to the primitive state of nature.
    • FUNDAMENTACIONES DE LA BIOÉTICA

      Gómez-Lobo,Alfonso (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2009-01-01)
      Tras señalar que la bioética no es sino ética aplicada, el artículo describe tres fundamentaciones bioéticas -utilitarismo, de los principios y de los bienes básicos-, examinando sus postulados principales y revelando sus aparentes limitaciones. Concluye que no es posible hacer bioética en forma reflexiva sin un conocimiento crítico de las opciones en filosofía moral y en ontología, y de las cuales derivan los principales desacuerdos actuales en la aplicación de la ética al dominio de la vida humana.
    • FUNDAMENTACIONES DE LA BIOÉTICA

      Alfonso Gómez-Lobo (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2009)
      Tras señalar que la bioética no es sino ética aplicada, el artículo describe tres fundamentaciones bioéticas -utilitarismo, de los principios y de los bienes básicos-, examinando sus postulados principales y revelando sus aparentes limitaciones. Concluye que no es posible hacer bioética en forma reflexiva sin un conocimiento crítico de las opciones en filosofía moral y en ontología, y de las cuales derivan los principales desacuerdos actuales en la aplicación de la ética al dominio de la vida humana.
    • FUNDAMENTACIÓN DE LA ENSEÑANZA DE LA BIOÉTICA EN MEDICINA

      Outomuro, Delia (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2008-01-01)
      Al repensar el modelo de atención médica, se vuelve evidente la necesidad de formar un médico general con una visión integral del hombre y de la medicina, capaz de enfrentarse críticamente a los problemas que entraña la práctica cotidiana. La incorporación de la bioética en los currículos de grado y posgrado constituye una estrategia fundamental para mejorar la calidad de atención sanitaria y desarrollar una práctica médica en un marco que enfatice la atención integrada sobre la especializada y que privilegie a la "persona" sobre la enfermedad. Asimismo, deben planificarse desde la universidad estrategias tendientes a acercar la bioética a la comunidad, facilitando el diálogo en condiciones de simetría de todos los sectores sociales involucrados en los conflictos bioéticos.
    • FUNDAMENTOS Y PRINCIPIOS DE BIOÉTICA CLÍNICA, INSTITUCIONAL Y SOCIAL

      León Correa,Francisco Javier (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2009-01-01)
      Se intenta fundamentar la necesidad de ampliar el campo de la bioética en Latinoamérica desde la ética clínica a una bioética social, para abordar los dilemas éticos institucionales, de salud pública, políticas y reformas de los sistemas de salud y legislación. La propuesta es, por una parte, incorporar al debate académico en bioética estos aspectos de su dimensión institucional y social; por otra, desarrollar el sistema de la bioética de principios, fundamentando desde el personalismo y la ética dialógica los preceptos complementarios que puedan ser utilizados en las resoluciones de casos y toma de decisiones.
    • FUNDAMENTOS Y PRINCIPIOS DE BIOÉTICA CLÍNICA, INSTITUCIONAL Y SOCIAL

      Francisco Javier León Correa (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2009)
      Se intenta fundamentar la necesidad de ampliar el campo de la bioética en Latinoamérica desde la ética clínica a una bioética social, para abordar los dilemas éticos institucionales, de salud pública, políticas y reformas de los sistemas de salud y legislación. La propuesta es, por una parte, incorporar al debate académico en bioética estos aspectos de su dimensión institucional y social; por otra, desarrollar el sistema de la bioética de principios, fundamentando desde el personalismo y la ética dialógica los preceptos complementarios que puedan ser utilizados en las resoluciones de casos y toma de decisiones.
    • GARCÍA LLERENA, VIVIANA M. De la Bioética a la Biojurídica: el principialismo y sus alternativas

      Cornejo Plaza,Isabel (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2012-11-01)
    • GENÉTICA Y BIOÉTICA EN AMÉRICA LATINA

      Vergès, Claude (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2004-01-01)
      Las implicaciones bioéticas de la genética en América Latina: se analizan las relaciones entre el poder científico y los derechos humanos en las condiciones particulares de este continente. En particular, el mito de la salud perfecta que rodea a la genética permite abusos de los derechos de las personas en sociedades poco democráticas. El análisis de las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la consejería genética y las pruebas genéticas muestra que la bioética debe estar vigilante en su aplicación
    • GENOMA Y BIOÉTICA: UNA VISIÓN HOLÍSTICA DE CÓMO VAMOS HACIA EL MUNDO FELIZ QUE NOS PROMETEN LAS BIOCIENCIAS

      Antoine,Jean-Luc M.J (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2004-01-01)
      La idea de la ciudad utópica es casi tan antigua como el pensamiento humano. Ella consiste en una sociedad teóricamente perfecta y transparente donde todo está perfectamente controlado y, en consecuencia, los ciudadanos podrían alcanzar la felicidad. En este artículo pretendemos reflexionar, mediante una perspectiva holística -y con ejemplos prácticos como la clonación, células troncales y eugenismo-, acerca de la sociedad genética actualmente en ciernes, la que, a pesar de presentarse como una potente herramienta para alcanzar una ciudad utópica, sería hoy imposible por los numerosos riesgos y peligros existentes. Por tanto, creemos importante un análisis sobre la bioética y el progreso, antes de seguir adelante
    • GENOMIC SOVEREIGNTY OR THE ENEMY WITHIN

      Jesús Mario Siqueiros-García; Pablo Francisco Oliva-Sánchez; Garbiñe Saruwatari-Zavala (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2013)
      Genomic sovereignty is a concept that has become very popular among developing countries such as India, China, South Africa and Mexico. This concept is a response to developed countries that have taken advantage of those countries and researchers who dont have the means for protecting their own biogenetic resources. In this article we argue that genomic sovereignty is not about the others extracting and exploiting local human genetic resources, but developing and implementing the ethical, legal and administrative tools, based on transparency, openness and equal access to biological material, in order to build up a robust research networks. Being biological samples a scarce and valuable good, we conclude that controlling the access to this resource by means of the law, without a well implemented biobanking system and a clear scientific policy may lead to a situation where asymmetric relations are generated among research groups of the very same developing country. We would advice to those countries pretending to protect their biological samples and data from the outside, before developing laws against possible intrusions, they need to design strategies to promote equal and fair access to both resources paramount to biomedical research.
    • Genomics, biotechnology and global health: the work of the university of Toronto joint centre for bioethics

      Abdallah S. Daar; Puja Sahni; Peter A. Singer (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2004)
      The new and rapidly advancing field of genomics and related biotechnologies has the ability to either improve or worsen global health inequities. In general, developing countries are left behind in the development of new technologies and advances in genomic medicine. In this view, the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics (JCB) through the Canadian Program on Genomics and Global Health has developed 25 research projects on capacity enhancement for developing countries for improving global health equity, including public health via genomics and related biotechnologies. One project with a great impact was the "Top Ten Biotechnologies for Improving Health in Developing Countries" for its influence in the "Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative" foster by the Melinda Gates Foundation. Additionally, the UN Millennium Development Project has asked JCB to become the genomics working group for improving global health through genomics biotechnology and JCB has started by studying applications of genomics/biotechnologies in seven developing countries: Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, South Africa and South Korea, which may set examples for other developing nations.
    • GENOMICS, BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GLOBALHEALTH: THE WORK OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO JOINT CENTRE FOR BIOETHICS

      Daar,Abdallah S; Sahni,Puja; Singer,Peter A (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2004-01-01)
      The new and rapidly advancing field of genomics and related biotechnologies has the ability to either improve or worsen global health inequities. In general, developing countries are left behind in the development of new technologies and advances in genomic medicine. In this view, the University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics (JCB) through the Canadian Program on Genomics and Global Health has developed 25 research projects on capacity enhancement for developing countries for improving global health equity, including public health via genomics and related biotechnologies. One project with a great impact was the “Top Ten Biotechnologies for Improving Health in Developing Countries” for its influence in the “Grand Challenges in Global Health Initiative” foster by the Melinda Gates Foundation. Additionally, the UN Millennium Development Project has asked JCB to become the genomics working group for improving global health through genomics biotechnology and JCB has started by studying applications of genomics/biotechnologies in seven developing countries: Brazil, China, Cuba, Egypt, India, South Africa and South Korea, which may set examples for other developing nations
    • GENOMICS, PUBLIC HEALTH AND IDENTITY

      Chadwick,Ruth (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2003-01-01)
      This paper questions the utility of the ethical principles that are usually invoked to deal with genomic issues, particularly genetic databases. Concepts such as solidarity, benefit sharing, equity, public participation, and collective identity are discussed. The author argues that genetic banks are precipitating new concern over group interest, as opposed to concern over issues arising from individualistic medical ethics. Genomics era needs new paradigms in ethics. An individualistic approach based on choice and autonomy is not useful, because we make choices not only as individuals but also as members of different groups. The doctrine of informed consent evolved in different historical conditions from the ones we face in the era of genomics. This is complicated by the global context of genetic research, in addition to powerful commercial interests. This suggests that it is not sufficient to move from an individual-centred ethic approach to a more community-centred one; an approach of renegotiating the relationship between individual and community. We need also to be clear about what the interests at stake are, which may mean reconceiving the terms 'individual' and 'community' in this context and the ways in which their interests are affected, identifying the sources of collective identity that are at stake