• NATURAL LAW, HISTORY AND POLITICS

      Drane,James (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2002-01-01)
      The basic philosophical vision and ethical principles of Catholic Natural Law claim universality. Natural Law thinking aspires to objectivity and universality and at the same time is open to the continuing influence from history and politics. The background principles of positive law historically go by the name of Natural Law. Suffering and injustice contribute to a vision both of the structure of human existence and of what we mean by humane law and ethics. When we confront a cultural crisis, Natural Law, looks not to the past but to the future. Few people today talk of the ethical dimensions of social realities in terms of Natural Law. This is true both in the Church and in the State. In bioethics, the principles rooted in the universal structure of human life have to provide direction and regulations on the playing field of contemporary life and medicine. A liberal Catholic perspective tries to keep in play the universal and the particular aspects of Natural Law reasoning
    • Natural law, history and politics

      James Drane (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2002)
      The basic philosophical vision and ethical principles of Catholic Natural Law claim universality. Natural Law thinking aspires to objectivity and universality and at the same time is open to the continuing influence from history and politics. The background principles of positive law historically go by the name of Natural Law. Suffering and injustice contribute to a vision both of the structure of human existence and of what we mean by humane law and ethics. When we confront a cultural crisis, Natural Law, looks not to the past but to the future. Few people today talk of the ethical dimensions of social realities in terms of Natural Law. This is true both in the Church and in the State. In bioethics, the principles rooted in the universal structure of human life have to provide direction and regulations on the playing field of contemporary life and medicine. A liberal Catholic perspective tries to keep in play the universal and the particular aspects of Natural Law reasoning.
    • Naturaleza y humanidades: desafíos de la ecobioética

      Lolas Stepke,Fernando (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2019-12-01)
    • NECESIDAD DE LA BIOÉTICA EN LA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR

      Bermúdez de Caicedo, Clemencia (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2006-01-01)
      Urge que la educación superior incluya la formación en valores, generando una cultura de respeto por la vida e influyendo en todos los escenarios de actuación del ser humano y en sus relaciones con los seres bióticos y abióticos del planeta. Resulta imperativo revisar los currículos (reales y ocultos) para identificar lo que nos permitirá formar no sólo profesionales exitosos, sino ciudadanos comprometidos con el capital social y el desarrollo
    • New concept in clinical care: proposal of a moral intelligence scale

      Oztürk,Hülya; Saylıgil,Omür; Yıldız,Zeki (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2019-12-01)
      Abstract: Effective communication, especially of those health professionals in management positions, contributes to the entire process of treating patients and can transform the quality of service into the processes of diagnosis, treatment and care. Managers with moral intelligence are able to distinguish right from wrong and can facilitate the relationship between health professionals and patients. The purpose of this study is to develop a scale to measure moral intelligence. The measurement tool created by the Lawshe method was applied to 789 health professionals. Following the calculations of the Content Validity Ratio and the Content Validity Index, the scale included 77 items. After applying it, with the subsequent exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the scale received its final form with 47 items. The Cα value of the scale is 0.966. The scale has seven dimensions, and they have been defined as “equality”, “empathy”, “moral intelligence”, “justice”, “tolerance”, “self-control” and “kindness”. The Cα values for these dimensions are determined respectively as 0.922, 0.910, 0.874, 0.859, 0.799, 0.840 and 0.772; demonstrating that the scale allows to study the moral intelligence of nurses and doctors. The scale developed had high Cronbach alpha values for each component and element, indicating that the scale provides a survey with high validity to measure the moral intelligence of doctors and nurses. Factor analysis shows a statistically valid distribution of items and components. Taking into account the moral intelligence parameters in the provision of health services will contribute to accurately diagnose disorders, reduce patient anxiety, ensure a shorter hospital stay, reduce the number of patients transferred to other health centers, to prevent negligence, save time and achieve better workforce planning.
    • NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN BIOMEDICINE. OPINIONS OF YOUNG ROMANIAN PHYSICIANS

      Sorin Hostiuc; Octavian Buda; Claudia Ileana Mihailov; Mihaela Hostiuc (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2015)
      The purpose of this article is to summarize the way young medical professionals view these modern biomedical procedures and their moral acceptability. Materials and methods: A survey, filled in online, analyzing items in four main areas: genetic techniques, cloning, stem cell research, and assisted reproduction. Results: Most subjects agreed that the right to the genetic material should be a fundamental human right and that genetic engineering should be used if it could lead to the elimination os severe genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis and thalassemia. The least acceptance rate was obtained for techniques that would either change physical traits (like eye or hair color) or augment them. Most subjects agreed that the prenatal screening should be mandatory, and if the screening detects a severe congenital malformation the physician should recommend therapeutic abortion. Most subjects disagreed that cloning of any type, either therapeutic or reproductive, using human, animal, or vegetal genetic material. Most subjects agreed with the collection and storage of cord blood stem cells and the use of adult stem cells, and most of them disagreed with the creation of embryos specifically for obtaining stem cells. Conclusions: Even if the national legislation in this area is very scarce, the responses have usually identified the highly controversial techniques. If however the national legislation has elements similar to the items from the survey, they tended to take the respective items as morally acceptable without trying to analyze them critically.
    • NIVEL DE CONOCIMIENTO DE LA BIOÉTICA EN CARRERAS DE ODONTOLOGÍA DE DOS UNIVERSIDADES DE AMÉRICA LATINA

      Buendía-López,Ana Laura; Álvarez de la Cadena-Sandoval,Carolina (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2006-01-01)
      Se realizó un estudio simultáneo en dos universidades que dictan la carrera de odontología, en Chile y México, con el fin de determinar el nivel de conocimientos que sobre bioética tienen los alumnos de esta carrera. Se constató que en ambas universidades el nivel de conocimiento es vago; no obstante, en Chile han recibido más información o la han obtenido por sí mismos, aunque tienen menos disposición a ampliar sus conocimientos en bioética. Se concluye que, en ambas universidades, los alumnos no poseen un conocimiento suficiente o al menos aceptable sobre bioética
    • Nivel de conocimiento de la bioética en carreras de odontología de dos universidades de América Latina

      Ana Laura Buendía-López; Carolina Álvarez de la Cadena-Sandoval (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2006)
      Se realizó un estudio simultáneo en dos universidades que dictan la carrera de odontología, en Chile y México, con el fin de determinar el nivel de conocimientos que sobre bioética tienen los alumnos de esta carrera. Se constató que en ambas universidades el nivel de conocimiento es vago; no obstante, en Chile han recibido más información o la han obtenido por sí mismos, aunque tienen menos disposición a ampliar sus conocimientos en bioética. Se concluye que, en ambas universidades, los alumnos no poseen un conocimiento suficiente o al menos aceptable sobre bioética.
    • NON-PARTICIPATION BIAS IN HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH USING DATA FROM AN INTEGRATED ELECTRONIC PRESCRIBING PROJECT: THE ROLE OF INFORMED CONSENT

      Bartlett, Gillian; Tamblyn,Robyn M; Kawasumi, Yuko; Poissant, Lise; Taylor,Laurel (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2005-01-01)
      Electronic prescribing potentially reduces adverse outcomes and provides critical information for drug safety research but studies may be distorted by non-participation bias. 52,507 patients and 28 physicians were evaluated to determine characteristics associated with consent status in an electronic prescribing project. Physicians with less technology proficiency, seeing more patients, and having patients with higher fragmentation of care were less likely to obtain consent. Older patients with complex health status, higher income, and more visits to the study physician were more likely to consent. These systematic differences could result in significant non-participation bias for research conducted only with consenting patients
    • NORMALIZACIÓN DEL DISCURSO HOMOFÓBICO: ASPECTOS BIOÉTICOS

      Sevilla González,María de la Luz; Álvarez Licona,Nelson Eduardo (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2006-01-01)
      La homofobia está presente en todo discurso, sólo que por la normalización de ciertas conductas de rechazo hacia los homosexuales no nos percatamos. Este artículo analiza específicamente el discurso homofóbico del personal de salud. La ética profesional dicta que este personal trate con respeto y dignidad a los pacientes; sin embargo, se ha comprobado que existen actitudes prejuiciadas en las instituciones de salud que disminuyen la posibilidad de ayuda al paciente y generan mala relación y desconfianza
    • Normalización del discurso homofóbico: aspectos bioéticos

      María de la Luz Sevilla González; Nelson Eduardo Álvarez Licona (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2006)
      La homofobia está presente en todo discurso, sólo que por la normalización de ciertas conductas de rechazo hacia los homosexuales no nos percatamos. Este artículo analiza específicamente el discurso homofóbico del personal de salud. La ética profesional dicta que este personal trate con respeto y dignidad a los pacientes; sin embargo, se ha comprobado que existen actitudes prejuiciadas en las instituciones de salud que disminuyen la posibilidad de ayuda al paciente y generan mala relación y desconfianza.
    • NORMATIVIDAD FISIOLÓGICA Y NOCIVIDAD AMBIENTAL: ASPECTOS BIOÉTICOS DE LAS METÁFORAS CIENTÍFICAS

      Lolas Stepke,Fernando (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2001-01-01)
      Este artículo examina históricamente la influencia social de la fisiología científica como fundamento de la medicina y la tensión entre lo universal y cosmopolita de la ciencia y lo particular del contexto cotidiano. Esta tensión se vincula a la metáfora de la máquina, central en la fisiología del siglo XIX, modificada por las ciencias sociales y humanas, que introducen la historicidad (no la simple temporalidad) como factor diferenciador. La normatividad fisiológica encuentra límites de aplicación en la medicina social, en la elaboración de pautas de rendimiento laboral y deportivo y en la consideración de las nocividades ambientales. Se sugiere que la construcción discursiva de las metáforas no explícitas permite establecer el diálogo entre racionalidades y personas y de este modo facilita la deliberación bioética
    • NOTAS SOBRE JUDAÍSMO Y BIOÉTICA

      Tapia-Adler, Ana María (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2010-06-01)
      El presente artículo revisa algunos temas tradicionales de bioética desde la perspectiva del Judaísmo, refiere respuestas desde las fuentes originales, sus sucesivas exégesis y la legislación judía (Halajá), y revela la relación entre ciencia, fe y defensa de la vida en esta visión religiosa.
    • NUEVAS PERSPECTIVAS EN CUIDADOS PALIATIVOS

      Pessini,Leo; Bertachini,Luciana (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2006-01-01)
      Este artículo examina los cuidados paliativos bajo diversos aspectos. Tras una revisión histórica y conceptual, nos preguntamos cuáles deben ser los cuidados de la salud en los contextos geriátrico y gerontológico, así como su contribución en el mantenimiento y rescate de las capacidades funcionales. Reafirmamos la importancia de la reflexión ética, científica, humana, espiritual y sociocultural sobre los programas dirigidos al cuidado de los ancianos en su multidimensionalidad. Al final, señalamos algunos desafíos referentes a rescatar la sabiduría de vivir y la dignidad en el adiós a la vida
    • Nuevas perspectivas en cuidados paliativos

      Leo Pessini; Luciana Bertachini (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2006)
      Este artículo examina los cuidados paliativos bajo diversos aspectos. Tras una revisión histórica y conceptual, nos preguntamos cuáles deben ser los cuidados de la salud en los contextos geriátrico y gerontológico, así como su contribución en el mantenimiento y rescate de las capacidades funcionales. Reafirmamos la importancia de la reflexión ética, científica, humana, espiritual y sociocultural sobre los programas dirigidos al cuidado de los ancianos en su multidimensionalidad. Al final, señalamos algunos desafíos referentes a rescatar la sabiduría de vivir y la dignidad en el adiós a la vida.
    • NURSE ATTITUDES IN RELATION TO HEALTH CARE ETHICS AND LEGAL REGULATIONS FOR NURSING

      Marta Elena Losa Iglesias; Ricardo Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2014)
      The nursing environment is full of situations under ethical and legal constraints. Therefore this study focused on the knowledge, position and attitudes of nurses in relation to healthcare ethics and nursing legal regulations. We conducted a pretest and posttest study using a specific questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of nurses who worked in a healthcare system in Principado de Asturias, a northern state of Spain and were enrolled in a continuing nursing education program about ethical and legal aspects in the nursing profession. The main findings suggest that nurses are very concerned about situations that create ethical and legal conflicts but do not feel sufficiently trained. In general, they demonstrated suf - ficient knowledge to address the most frequent ethical and moral situations of nursing work, and the training received during a postgraduate course in ethics and legislation provided them with greater knowledge and tools to solve the dilemmas In conclusion, although the nurses have university-level education about professional deontology, bioethics and nursing legisla - tion, they require periodic continuing education.
    • Nurse attitudes in relation to health care ethics and legal regulations for nursing

      Losa Iglesias,Marta Elena; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo,Ricardo (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2014-11-01)
      The nursing environment is full of situations under ethical and legal constraints. Therefore this study focused on the knowledge, position and attitudes of nurses in relation to healthcare ethics and nursing legal regulations. We conducted a pretest and posttest study using a specific questionnaire administered to a convenience sample of nurses who worked in a healthcare system in Principado de Asturias, a northern state of Spain and were enrolled in a continuing nursing education program about ethical and legal aspects in the nursing profession. The main findings suggest that nurses are very concerned about situations that create ethical and legal conflicts but do not feel sufficiently trained. In general, they demonstrated sufficient knowledge to address the most frequent ethical and moral situations of nursing work, and the training received during a postgraduate course in ethics and legislation provided them with greater knowledge and tools to solve the dilemmas. In conclusion, although the nurses have university-level education about professional deontology, bioethics and nursing legislation, they require periodic continuing education.
    • O CONSENTIMENTO INFORMADO NOS PAÍSES EM DESENVOLVIMENTO É REALMENTE AUTÔNOMO? UM ESTUDO DESCRITIVO COM PARTICIPANTES DE UM ENSAIO CLÍNICO SOBRE HELMINTOSES

      Lucas Lobato; Maria Flávia Gazzinelli (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2015)
      Este estudo demonstra que a assinatura do Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido não representa uma decisão autônoma para todos participantes de um ensaio clínico sobre Helmintoses. Os resultados desse estudo evidenciam que a maioria dos participantes de um ensaio clínico desconhecem diversas informações sobre a pesquisa e seus direitos. O desconhe - cimento dessas informações é influenciado pelas características individuais dessas participantes, sendo associado negativamente pela idade dos participantes de pesquisa e positivamente pela renda mensal, o acesso a meios eletrônicos de comunicação e a educação formal. Realizamos um estudo transversal, descritivo, com 70 participantes de um ensaio clínicos sobre Helmintoses realizado no Nordeste de Minas Gerais. Utilizamos a regressão linear múltipla para análise de associação. Os resultados deste estudo apontam para a necessidade de se criar estratégias capazes de melhorar o conhecimento dos participantes de ensaios clínicos, sobretudo naqueles com características individuais que atuam como barreiras para esse conhecimento.
    • O nascimento da bioética e a constituição do biopoder

      Roque Junges,José (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, Universidad de Chile, 2011-11-01)
      O nascimento da bioética geralmente está associado a certas pessoas e fatos do contexto norte-americano. Mas essa é apenas a superfície da sua origem. O artigo tem o objetivo de mostrar que a bioética está ligada ao surgimento da gestão da vida pelo biopoder com suas dinâmicas biopolíticas. O caminho para alcançar esse objetivo consiste em rever autores como Foucault, Agamben, Negri e Hardt que analisaram em profundidade essas configurações que são a verdadeira causa do surgimento da bioética. Por isso o tipo de ética adequado para bioética é a hermenêutica crítica das dinâmicas biopolíticas. Ela consiste numa análise crítica da facticidade dessas dinâmicas no seu contexto sociocultural de configuração e nos discursos construídos para sua justificação através da hermenêutica em profundidade proposta por Thompson. Um exemplo concreto desse resultado é análise do direito à saúde atravessado pelos agenciamentos tecnosemiológicos e biopolíticos das empresas biotecnológicas.
    • O nascimento da bioética e a constituição do biopoder

      José Roque Junges (Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética, 2011)
      O nascimento da bioética geralmente está associado a certas pessoas e fatos do contexto norte-americano. Mas essa é apenas a superfície da sua origem. O artigo tem o objetivo de mostrar que a bioética está ligada ao surgimento da gestão da vida pelo biopoder com suas dinâmicas biopolíticas. O caminho para alcançar esse objetivo consiste em rever autores como Foucault, Agamben, Negri e Hardt que analisaram em profundidade essas configurações que são a verdadeira causa do surgimento da bioética. Por isso o tipo de ética adequado para bioética é a hermenêutica crítica das dinâmicas biopolíticas. Ela consiste numa análise crítica da facticidade dessas dinâmicas no seu contexto sociocultural de configuração e nos discursos construídos para sua justificação através da hermenêutica em profundidade proposta por Thompson. Um exemplo concreto desse resultado é análise do direito à saúde atravessado pelos agenciamentos tecnosemiológicos e biopolíticos das empresas biotecnológicas.