Author(s)De Wulf, Luc
RISK OF CORRUPTION
CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS
TRANSPARENCY TAX SYSTEMS
PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE PROJECTS
CORRUPTION IN POLITICS
DIVISION OF POWERS
PUBLIC SECTOR REFORM
QUALITY OF SERVICE
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AbstractWorld Bank-supported efforts to reform public institutions--including tax and customs administration--increasingly rely on institutional analysis. But there are no formal, generally accepted guidelines for analyzing tax systems. As a result the Bank's task managers and team leaders conduct these analyses in very different ways. The paper on which this Note is based reviewed 83 Bank-financed tax and customs reform operations in the 1990s to assess whether current approaches fall within the bounds of institutional analysis and add up to a consistent methodology. The review compiled Bank projects that supported tax administration reform, compared their diagnostic work to an emerging diagnostic model, and assessed their focus and their results.
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Making Public Sector Reforms Work : Political and Economic Contexts, Incentives, and StrategiesBunse, Simone; Fritz, Verena (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-08)Supporting effective public sector reform is a major challenge that the World Bank and other agencies and stakeholders have been grappling with. It is increasingly recognized that political economy factors play a crucial role. However, beyond this broad proposition, specific questions arise: What country contexts are more/less propitious for public sector reforms and what reforms are likely to succeed where? And can more explicitly taking political economy challenges into account help to pursue public sector reforms even in less propitious contexts? This paper addresses these issues in two ways: first, it draws on the existing literature to identify key propositions about factors that can trigger or facilitate public sector reforms, and those that tend to work against (successful) reforms. Second, it investigates the experience of World Bank public sector operations over the decade 2000-2010. It finds that governments in many developing countries face incentives to initiate public sector reforms, but that at the implementation stage, political costs frequently outweigh potential gains; and hence reforms are abandoned or left to wither. Real breakthroughs have been achieved in countries experiencing major structural shifts and those having political leadership committed to higher-level goals. The review of operations shows that successful projects are significantly more widespread than the literature would lead to assume. Furthermore, it provides tentative evidence that investing in understanding political economy drivers has been associated with better project performance. Key implications are the need to differentiate between country contexts more clearly ex ante, concentrate more on reform implementation during windows of opportunity that are typically of limited duration, and design reforms with a clear plan of engagement with stakeholder incentives.
Lao PDR - Civil Service Pay and Compensation Review : Attracting and Motivating Civil ServantsWorld Bank (World Bank, 2012-03-19)Lao PDR is at a point on its development
trajectory where strategic attention to administrative
performance is crucial. An efficient and high-performing
civil service, with the compensation and human resource
management systems to attract and motivate qualified
personnel, will be essential to Lao PDR's development
efforts. The ministerial-level Public Administration and
Civil Service Authority (PACSA) is currently spearheading
the drafting of a comprehensive new civil service management
strategy that will be implemented over the period 2010-2020,
with a number of important reforms to strengthen the civil
service anticipated to take place within the next five
years. Key objectives include improvements in human resource
policies and planning, salary reform, and enhanced
performance management. In order to present as comprehensive
a picture as possible of the Lao civil service pay and
compensation system, and its strengths and challenges, this
report comprises four chapters. The first characterizes the
Lao civil service in perspective. The second examines how
civil servants are compensated. The third assesses whether
they are compensated adequately. The fourth summarizes civil
servants own characterization of their incentives in both
compensation- and non-compensation-related terms. A brief
conclusion points to a set of principles for civil service
reform and outlines three sequenced steps toward achieving a
more rational civil service pay and grading system.
Public Sector Reform: What Works and Why? An IEG evaluation of World Bank SupportIndependent Evaluation Group (Washington, DC : World Bank, 2012-05-25)The World Bank support for public sector reform has grown notably in recent years. To address the questions of what is working and why in this area, the Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) has examined Bank lending and other support for public sector reform in four areas: public financial management, administrative and civil service, revenue administration, and anticorruption and transparency. A majority of countries that borrowed to support public sector reform improved their performance in some dimensions, but there were shortcomings in important aspects. Middle-income borrowers saw improvements in their public sector quality more frequently than low-income borrowers, even though the low-income group usually had greater needs for public sector improvement. Performance usually improved for public financial management, tax administration, and transparency, but not for civil service. Direct measures to reduce corruption, such as anticorruption laws and commissions, rarely succeeded, as they often lacked the necessary support from political elites and the judicial system.