• A Demand-driven Model of Decentralised Land-use Planning and Natural Resource Management: Experiences from the Chiredzi District of Zimbabwe

      Mandondo, Alois; Kozanayi, Witness (CODESRIA, 2016-05-16)
      Decentralisation should ideally result in the transfer of effective power and control from the state to elected local level authorities – it should take a democratic form. But most decentralisation reforms turn out to be supply-led interventions in which states and other upper level actors, most of whom have a predilection to retain far-reaching control, define the form and extent of powers to be given to local-level authorities, usually resulting in de-concentration. This paper uses empirical evidence from Zimbabwe to argue that decentralisation is likely to result in more thoroughgoing empowerment if it is demand-driven. Even if empowerment is  demanded we note that relations in decentralised arenas are not necessarily always egalitarian. We therefore argue that efforts to resolve the dilemma of community  marginalisation through decentralisation should not lose sight of local level equity dimensions. We caution that demand-driven decentralisation should not be misconstrued as implying that the state and other external actors should  completely retire from the business of the local. Effective empowerment appears to require a preserved role for upper level (non-local) actors, especially in providing political legitimation, technical backstopping, financial support and resolving issues whose solutions transcend the scope and scale of the local.La décentralisation devrait idéalement aboutir à un transfert effectif de pouvoirs de l’État à des autorités locales élues ou  décentralisation démocratique. Mais la plupart des décentralisations se présentent comme des démarches initiées,  dirigées et contrôlées par l’État et les autorités centrales, qui en définissent la forme et contrôlent les pouvoirs dévolus aux autorités  locales. Ceci conduit finalement à une simple déconcentration. L’article ci-dessous s’appuie sur des évidences empiriques tirées du Zimbabwe pour montrer que la décentralisation semble ne pouvoir renforcer le pouvoir des acteurs périphériques que si elle se présente comme une demande de la base, et non comme une offre étatique. Même lorsque les pouvoirs sont demandés par la  base, et obtenus, les relations entre le niveau central et le niveau local dans les arènes décentralisées ne sont pas toujours  agalitaires. Nous montrons en conséquence que les efforts déployés pour résoudre le dilemme de la marginalisation du niveau  local à travers les  décentralisations ne doivent pas perdre de vue les dimensions de ce niveau local. Nous voulons dire que  même les décentralisations demandées et ‘arrachées’ ne doivent pas impliquer le retrait total de l’État central. Un réel  renforcement des pouvoirs du niveau local va de pair avec le maintien de certains rôles de l’État central, comme la légitimation politique, l’appui au développement local ou  l’expertise technique, et le soutien financier.
    • A Mulher guineense como sujeito e objecto do debate histórico contemporâneo: Excertos da história de vida de Teodora Inácia Gomes1

      Gomes, Patrícia Godinho (CODESRIA, 2017-12-01)
      A luta armada conduzida na Guiné-Bissau provocou mudanças profundas na estrutura social, nomeadamente em termos culturais e de edificação de novas estruturas administrativas e sociais (educação, saúde, justiça). Todavia, a construção de uma nova sociedade ficou muito aquém das reais expectativas do povo guineense no período que sucedeu à independência. O presente estudo procura discutir, com base no método de estudo da história oral, os primeiros resultados de uma pesquisa mais alargada sobre uma das figuras femininas bissau-guineenses que encarnam a atuação prática do pensamento de Amílcar Cabral, Teodora Inácia Gomes, a partir de alguns excertos da sua história de vida, da análise de alguns discursos de Amílcar Cabral sobre a condição feminina, de documentos produzidos pelo PAIGC sobre a situação das mulheres na sociedade bissau-guineense e na luta armada assim como de diversa literatura sobre o tema. The armed struggle conducted in Guinea-Bissau promoted profound changes in the social formation, particularly in terms of cultural, social and administrative  structures (education, health and justice). However, the building of a new society fell far short from the real expectations of the Bissau-Guinean people after the  independence. Based on the method of oral History, this study discusses the first results of a wider research on one of the Bissau-Guinean Women figures who embody the practical application of Amilcar Cabral’s thought, Teodora Inácia Gomes. The research make use of some fragments of Teodora’s life history, of the Amilcar Cabral’s discourse on Women condition, of the PAIGC’s documents and of the literature on the subject.
    • A Relevant Education for African Development—Some Epistemological Considerations

      Francis B Nyamnjoh (CODESRIA, 2005-08-26)
      This paper argues that education in Africa is the victim of a Western epistemological export that takes the form of science as ideology and hegemony. Under the Western epistemological export, education in Africa and/or for Africans has been like a pilgrimage to the Kilimanjaro of Western intellectual ideals, the tortuous route to Calvary for alternative ways of life. Sometimes, with rhetorical justification about the need to be competitive internationally, the practice has been for the elite to model education in Africa after educational institutions in the West, with little attempt at domestication. Education in Africa has been and mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalised sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems. Such cultural estrangement has served to reinforce in Africans self-devaluation and self-hatred and a profound sense of inferiority that in turn compels them to ‘lighten their darkness' both physically and metaphysically for Western gratification. The paper argues that the future of higher education in Africa can only be hopeful through a meticulous and creative process of cultural restitution and indigenisation even as African scholars continue to cooperate and converse with intellectual bedfellows in the West and elsewhere. If Africa is to be party to a global conversation of universities and scholars, it is only appropriate that it does so on its own terms, with the interests and concerns of ordinary Africans as the guiding principle. Résumé Le présent article pose comme postulat que l\'éducation en Afrique est victime d\'une exportation épistémologique qui présente la science comme idéologie et hégémonie. Conformément à cette logique d\'exportation épistémologique occidentale, l\'éducation en Afrique et/ou pour les Africains est comparable à un pèlerinage au Kilimanjaro des idéaux intellectuels du Nord, comme le chemin tortueux du calvaire, à la recherche désespérée de moyens de survie. Parfois, sur la base d\'une rhétorique justificative quant à la nécessité d\'être compétitif sur le plan international, la pratique pour l\'élite a toujours été de calquer l\'éducation en Afrique sur le modèle des institutions éducatives de l\'occident, sans le moindre effort d\'adaptation. L\'éducation en Afrique a toujours été et demeure largement un parcours alimenté par un sens d\'inadéquation induit et intériorisé de manière exogène chez les Africains, avec pour mission d\'annihiler le sens créatif, le dynamisme et les systèmes de valeur des Africains. Cette aliénation culturelle n\'a servi qu\'à cristalliser chez l\'Africain le sentiment d\'auto dévaluation et de haine contre soi-même, ainsi qu\'un profond sentiment d\'infériorité qui à son tour l\'oblige à «éclaircir sa noirceur» tant physique que métaphysique pour faire plaisir à l\'occident. Cet article soutient que l\'avenir de l\'enseignement supérieur en Afrique ne peut être prometteur que s\'il subit un processus de restitution et d\'inculturation culturelle méticuleux et créatif, bien que les intellectuels africains continuent de collaborer et de converser avec des collègues intellectuels du Nord et d\'ailleurs. Si l\'Afrique souhaite participer au débat mondial des universités et des intellectuels, il n\'est que convenable qu\'elle le fasse en ses propres termes, avec pour principe directeur les intérêts et les préoccupations de l\'Africain ordinaire. Africa Development/Afrique et développement Vol.XXIX, No 1, 2004: 161-184
    • Access to Drugs at Risk: Securing Access to Medicines for Least Developed Countries

      Jurua, Maria (CODESRIA, 2017-12-05)
      Is access to medicines at risk despite the Doha Declaration? What are the alternative mechanisms that should be instituted to guarantee continued access to life saving drugs for many in the least developed countries (LDCs)? The Doha Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health. Since Doha, access to drugs has dramatically increased to reach more than five billion people in developing countries. The Doha declaration also gave WTO members that are among the least-developed countries, an extended transition period, until 1 January 2016, with regard to pharmaceutical patents and test data protection for pharmaceutical products. The transition period extension in favour of least developed countries is to allow additional access to generic medicines. Post the transition period, efforts are needed to protect what has been achieved. This is necessary because of the stifled research and development for new drugs on neglected tropical diseases and the current trend of the abuse of intellectual property enforcement measures provided for in the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs). Finding the right balance between health, trade and Intellectual Property policies to sustain innovation and ensure widespread access to life-saving technologies is one of the primary public policy challenges of our time.
    • activism by these youth whose desire is to respond to the government’s calls but also to provide an alternative to State limitations. State/society relationship is revisited in this paper which emphasises the importance of theoretically putting the Haberm

      MA Animashaun (CODESRIA, 2011-02-11)
      The post-colonial state in Africa has continued to dominate the public space on the continent in spite of its well advertised failings. It is widelyacknowledged in the literature that the African state has utterly failed in achieving material advancement for its people, leading disenchanted and frustrated citizens to take a ‘flight’ from the state and develop parallel structures to tend to their socio-economic and cultural needs. This situation, symptomatic of a crisis of governance, provides immediate explanation for the contested character of Africa’s public sphere. This paper examines the nature of contestation in Africa’s public sphere between the two dominant actors in the sphere – the state and civilsociety, the ideological underpinnings of this contestation and the impact of domestic and external contexts on the contestation. The paper observes that the declining capacity of the state for social provisioningprovides the context for citizens’ withdrawal from the public space occupied by the state. The paper argues that disengagement from the state, apart from not serving the interest of both the state and civil society, has serious implications for governing Africa’s public sphere.RésuméL’Etat post-colonial en Afrique a continué à occuper largement l’espace public sur le continent malgré ses échecs bien connus. La littérature agénéralement reconnu l’échec de l’Etat en Afrique qui n’a toujours pas répondu aux attentes quant à la réalisation de progrès matériel pour sonpeuple. Ceci a poussé les citoyens désenchantés et frustrés à « fuir » l’Etat et à créer des structures parallèles, afin de prendre en charge leurs propres besoins socioéconomiques et culturels. Ce phénomène qui estsymptomatique de la crise de gouvernance est la toute première  explication de la nature contestataire de la sphère publique en Afrique. Cette étude se penche sur la nature de la contestation qui oppose deuxprincipaux acteurs dans la sphère publique – l’Etat et la société civile –,les soubassements idéologiques de cette contestation et l’impact des contextes interne et externe sur cette contestation. D’après cette étude, l’incapacité croissante de l’Etat à assurer le social créé le contexte pour le retrait des citoyens de l’espace public occupé par l’Etat. Le désengagementpar rapport à l’Etat, outre le fait qu’il ne sert pas les intérêts de celui-ci niceux de la société civile, a de graves implications pour la gouvernance dela sphère publique en Afrique.
    • African Development and the Primacy of Mental Decolonization

      Messay Kebede (CODESRIA, 2005-08-26)
      The drastic and manifold difficulties Africa faces suggest that something more than mere delay, unfavorable conditions or misguided policies is obstructing the goal of development. The suggestion calls for a serious reflection on the experience of colonialism, but in a way different from those studies tracing African predicaments back to colonial or imperialist misdeeds. This does not mean colonialism is not the real culprit, just that such a stance is necessary in light of the fact that many studies have not focused on the real source of Africa's ills: the phenomenon of mental colonization. Those scholars who bring out the detrimental impact of mental alienation either fail to totally emancipate their views from Western constructs, or cannot produce an alternative to Eurocentrism. This paper discusses the contributions of African philosophical debates to the elucidation of the negative impacts of colonial discourse on Africa's development effort. It draws attention to the limitations of the contributions and proposes an alternative conception vindicating the view that the great task of freeing the African mind from Eurocentric constructions takes priority over the design of development policies. Résumé Les nombreuses et graves difficultés que traverse l\'Afrique laissent penser qu\'il existe d\'autres éléments qu\'un simple retard, des conditions défavorables ou encore des politiques inadaptées, faisant obstacle au développement. Cela appelle à une sérieuse réflexion sur l\'expérience du colonialisme, qui soit différente des autres études, qui, elles, affirment que les problèmes de l\'Afrique seraient causés par les abus coloniaux et impérialistes. Cela ne signifie pas que le colonialisme n\'est pas le réel coupable, mais plutôt, que la plupart des études n\'ont pas analysé les véritables sources des maux dont souffre l\'Afrique, notamment le phénomène de la colonisation mentale. Les universitaires qui cherchent à démontrer l\'effet négatif de l\'aliénation mentale n\'arrivent pas à se détacher des visions occidentales, ou alors ne parviennent pas à définir une alternative à l\'eurocentrisme. Ce papier analyse la contribution des débats philosophiques africains à une meilleure compréhension de l\'impact négatif du discours colonial sur les efforts de développement de l\'Afrique. Il présente les limites de cette forme de contribution et propose une conception alternative selon laquelle, la mission consistant à libérer le mental des Africains des conceptions eurocentristes aurait préséance sur la conception de politiques de développement. Africa Development/Afrique et développement Vol.XXIX, No 1, 2004: 107 130
    • African Elites and their Post-colonial Legacy: Cultural, Political and Economic Discontent – by Way of Literature

      Diop, S (CODESRIA, 2013-04-19)
      In this article, I propose to discuss the way in which the issues of postcolonial modernism in the context of neoliberal capitalism has impacted on the traditional cultures and economic life of Africa’s new classes. These include the bureaucratic and professional classes and thematerially less fortunate members of the other post-colonial classes. Inthis regard I choose to examine, specifically, the way in which culturaltraditions and modernity exist in an uneasy symbiosis under the powerfulinfluences of contemporary political economy. Normally, when one speaks of the economics of Africa, it is usually done at a distance, with numbers and charts reflecting GDPs, growth rates, per capita incomes, etc., all in the context of ministrations from institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank. Unless one were directly involved it would be difficult to grasp the impact of the structural adjustments imposed on Africa’s peoples as they struggle to partake of the material life engendered by modern capitalism. The struggle is about maintaining statuses of economic materiality within a cultural context of eroding traditions. In this struggle to partake of modernity, as determined by the dictates of modern capitalism, the sociological results are a minority of economically well-off individuals, but with the masses of the people increasingly impoverished in a continent rich in natural resources and development potential. In sum, the theme of this is Africa’s cultural and economc discontent in an age of an essentially unchallenged neoliberal capitalism.
    • African ‘Youth’ since Independence: Notes on a Bibliographic Overview, 1990–2005

      I Butter; FK Klouwenberg (CODESRIA, 2012-02-22)
      This short bibliography on ‘youth’ is the result of a literature search carried out in 2005 in three library collections in the Netherlands. The references to the general literature on youth, politics and religion were found in the library of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences of Leiden University. For African references on this topic, the library of the African Studies Centre in Leiden was very useful. The Royal Tropical Institute’s library in Amsterdam was also used but to a lesser extent. The keywords used for the literature search were ‘youth’, ‘politics’ and ‘religion’ in four different languages: English, French, German and Dutch. This resulted in 270 references addressing the specific topics of youth, politics and religion, which all fall within the scope of the conference.
    • Africa’s Developmental Impasse: Some Perspectives and Recommendations

      Dembele, DM (CODESRIA, 2013-04-19)
      Africa is among the “poorest” regions of the world. The reality is thatAfrica is not poor but rather impoverished. This impoverishment datesback to the dawn of capitalism when slavery was one of the key elementsof capitalism’s “original accumulation”, as demonstrated par Karl Marxin The Capital.Colonial administration replaced slavery as from the 19th Century withthe occupation of Africa by Western powers. This has led to a systematiclooting of its natural resources and the exploitation of its cheap labourwhich served to industrialise Western countries.Thus, slavery and colonisation constituted the main causes of Africa’simpoverishment. With its accession to independence from the 1960s,one may have thought that looting Africa would have come to an endand its development stepped up. It was the contrary that occurredbecause in many countries, foreign domination had been reinforced inconnivance with the new African leaders.The failure of the neo-colonial management of African countries wasillustrated by the external debt crisis which started from the end of the1970s and led to the World Bank and IMF’s intervention. Theseinstitutions forced upon African countries the notoriously sadadjustment programmes which contributed to worsening the crisis intheir economies, taking poverty to an unprecedented level.The international financial crisis that occurred in 2008 illustrated thefailure of market fundamentalism of which adjustment programmes arethe forerunners. This crisis which has shaken the very bases of thecapitalistic system affords African leaders and thinkers the opportunityto break loose of the neoliberal yoke and explore a development paththat is more in tune with Africa. The author underscores that such apath should be non-capitalistic because the heavy toll that Africa haspaid since the birth of capitalism until now is a proof that the capitalisticdevelopment model is bound to fail.
    • Africa’s Growth and Development Strategies: A Critical Review

      Babatunde, MA (CODESRIA, 2013-04-19)
      At independence in the late 1950s and early 1960s, there were highhopes about the growth prospects of the new politically independentAfrican states. Economic conditions, such as per capita real income,were comparable to other developing countries like South Korea andTaiwan. By the mid-1970s, the growth profile of most African countrieshad started to decline and by the mid-1980s, it became obvious that theAfrican continent needed rescue packages which came in the form ofStructural Adjustment Programmes. However, countries like Taiwan andSouth Korea had made tremendous progress such that their per capitareal incomes had grown more than tenfold while those of most Africancountries had declined considerably compared to the immediate postindependence era. What role did the growth strategies adopted byAfrican countries play in this tragedy? How do we rethink Africa’sgrowth strategy? What were the lessons learned and which wayforward? These and other related issues are what this article sets out toaddress. The article identifies three distinct growth phases for theeconomies of Africa and analyzes critically the various modelsembedded in those phases. Among other things, the article stronglycanvasses for the deepening of regional integration, enhancingproductivity and competitiveness through investment in technologyand education, and the reinventing of African labour markets to promoteproductivity and good labour relations.
    • All knowledge is first of all local knowledge: an introduction

      Chukwudi Anthony Njoku; Whelan Research Academy for Religion, Culture and Society, International Centre, 162A Whetheral Road, Owerri, Nigeria; Theophilus Okere; Whelan Research Academy for Religion, Culture and Society, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; René Devisch; Catholic University of Louvain, Leuven, Belgium (CODESRIA, 2005-12-15)
      Against a monolithic view of knowledge production and the tendency to universalize science, this article calls attention to the unique genius and distinctive creativity and originality which underlines production of knowledge in any given cultural context. It takes seriously, the fact that, at its roots, knowledge production is context bound. Hence the authors emphasize the fact that all knowledge is first of all local knowledge. From this fundamental understanding of the true wellsprings of the production of knowledge, it argues against a mythic veil, which reformist modernity, especially, tended to place on the process of producing and transmitting knowledge. This deceptive myth about knowledge production, it opines, has had the negative impact of stereotyping, blackmailing, inferiorizing and derailing the production and sharing of knowledge and its artefacts in cultures other than the West. The colonial encounter, with its assumptions and presumptions, helped to rub in this vision of reformist modernity and to muffle the voices of colonised cultures. Hence such labels as ‘indigenous\' knowledge. In recognition, therefore, of the creative and genuine originality latent in every culture, this article seeks to empower cultures to realise, work on and appropriate the riches embedded in their own local knowledge tracts and trajectories. This appropriation by cultures, of their own rich genius, is, for the authors, the gateway to re-acquiring cultural dignity and self-confidence and indeed an opportunity for each cultural node to positively contribute to the commonwealth of world knowledge. Such variegated approach to mining the wisdom and ecological advantages of various cultural groups will enhance the sharing of knowledge in a spirit of both vertical and horizontal border-linking exchanges of riches found in different cultural contexts and knowledge fields. The ancient wisdom of the Igbo of south eastern Nigeria is used in the article as an illustration of this latent, culture specific genius. The article also highlights the mission of Whelan Research Academy for Religion, Culture and Society, Owerri, Nigeria, in creating awareness, space and forum for paying closer attention to indigenous knowledge tracts endangered in this derailment of a wider spectrum of cultural nodes of knowledge.Résumé Cet article s'élève contre la conception monolithique de la production de connaissances et contre cette tendance à universaliser la science. Il attire l'attention sur le génie et la créativité, et l'originalité distinctive qui caractérisent la production de connaissances dans tout contexte culturel. Cet article tient compte du fait qu'à la base la production de connaissances est avant tout liée au contexte culturel, d'où le caractère local, avant tout, de la connaissance. À partir de cette détermination fondamentale de la réelle source de production de connaissances, ce texte développe un argumentaire contre ce voile mythique que la modernité réformiste, particulièrement, a posé sur le processus de production et de transmission de la connaissance. Ce texte affirme que ce mythe trompeur de la production de connaissances a eu certains effets négatifs : il a contribué à stéréotyper, à placer en situation de chantage et d'infériorité, et a également déstabilisé la production et le partage de la connaissance et de ses produits par des cultures autres qu'occidentales. L'épisode colonial, avec son lot d'hypothèses et de suppositions, a contribué à instiller cette vision de la modernité réformiste, et à museler les voix des cultures colonisées, d'où certaines dénominations, telles que la connaissance ‘indigène', etc. Au vu de l'originalité créative et authentique en latence dans chaque culture, cet article cherche à aider les cultures à réaliser, exploiter et s'approprier les richesses existant dans leurs propres voies et trajectoires de connaissance locales. Cette appropriation par les cultures elles-mêmes, de leur propre génie, est, selon l'auteur, la meilleure façon de rétablir la dignité culturelle et la confiance en soi ; ainsi, chaque univers culturel peut positivement contribuer à enrichir le patrimoine de connaissances universelles. Une telle approche cosmopolite tendant à exploiter la sagesse et les avantages écologiques de divers groupes culturels permettra de mieux partager la connaissance, dans un esprit d'échanges transfrontalier des richesses puisées dans différents contextes culturels et différents champs de connaissances, aussi bien dans un sens vertical qu'horizontal. Le savoir ancestral des Igbos, dans le sud-est du Nigeria, est cité dans cet article, pour mieux illustrer ce génie latent, spécifique à la culture de chacun. Cet article met également en exergue la mission de la Whelan Research Academy for Religion, Culture and Society, à Owerri, au Nigeria, consistant à sensibiliser, à créer un espace et un forum permettant d'attirer l'attention sur les voies de la connaissance indigène, qui sont menacées par cette déferlante de composantes culturelles de la connaissance.Africa Development Vol. XXX(3) 2005: 1-19
    • Alternative Modes of Financing Higher Education in Nigeria and Implications for University Governance

      Olabisi I Aina (CODESRIA, 2005-08-25)
      Africa Development/Afrique et développement Vol.XXVII, Nos 1&2 2002: 236-261
    • Ambiguous Transitions: Mediating Citizenship Among Youths in Cameroon

      Jude Fokwang (CODESRIA, 2005-08-26)
      No Abstract Available Africa Development/Afrique et développement Vol.XXVIII, Nos 1&2, 2003: 173-201
    • Ambivalence and Activism: Netizens, Social Transformation and African Virtual Publics

      Ya’u, YZ (CODESRIA, 2013-04-19)
      Despite the fact that Africa is the least connected continent on the internet,the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is becomingpervasive and deeply embedded in social and political relations. They areimpacting on the way citizens live their lives and relate to both the state andother actors in the society. In this process, some citizens are becoming‘netizens’. Cyber networking, which has been facilitated by access to ICTs,has given rise to a public sphere that is virtual. This paper explores some ofthe key issues relating to the development of ICTs in Africa and the social and political processes they have spawned in their wake. It is argued that while the virtual public is not unique to Africa, its manifestations, organisational modes, and concerns in Africa are informed by African conditions, both in terms of the specific issues addressed and the wider context of technological deficit that the continent faces.
    • An Alternative African Developmentalism: A Critique of Zero-sum Games and Palliative Economics

      Amaizo, YE (CODESRIA, 2013-04-19)
      Africa’s economic growth and dependence since independence hasbeen characterised by a zero-sum economic interaction with the West.This was no more than a continuation of the Centre-Peripheryrelationship that existed during colonial times. The result of the zerosumgame interaction between Africa and the West has been to furtherincrease the historic unequal exchange. Economic crises marked bymassive unemployment, low wages and high prices have led todangerous migrations from the discontented continent. The problem isthat the post-colonial African nations are still firmly tied to the economictheories and programmes of their erstwhile colonisers. Thus thesolutions offered by way of the West are no more than palliatives. Thesolution is to develop new theories and pragmatic solutions that derivefrom autonomous Africa-centred positions. This is the significance ofan alternative African developmentalism.
    • An Alternative Theoretical Model for Economic Reforms in Africa

      KI Obiora (CODESRIA, 2010-07-30)
      This paper offers an alternative model for economic reforms in Africa. It proposes that Africa can still get on the pathway of sustained economic growth if economic reforms can focus on a key variable, namely, the price of non-tradables. Prices  of non-tradables are generally less in Africa than in advanced economies, and the typical basket of goods for many Africans will contain more non-tradables, while the reverse is the case in advanced economies. Working through its effect on the real exchange rate and given some plausible assumptions, this paperdemonstrates that economic reforms which reduce the price of non-tradables in Africa vis-à-vis the price of non-tradables in advanced economies can lead to real exchange rate depreciation, a rise in net exports, an avoidance of the “Dutch Disease” syndrome and a rise in per capita income. The paper concludes that any economic reforms that either skew consumption in Africa in favour of nontradablesvis-à-vis tradables or that reduce the price of non-tradables in Africavis-à-vis non-tradables in advanced economies is likely to be welfare-improving.
    • An Anatomy of Violent Crime and Insecurity in Kenya: The Case of Nairobi 1985-1999

      Edwin A Gimode (CODESRIA, 2005-08-24)
      No Abstract Available Africa Development Vol.XXVI, Nos 1&2, 2001: 295-335
    • An Assessment of Labour Market Information Systems in South Africa

      Theo Sparreboom (CODESRIA, 2005-08-24)
      No Abstract Available Africa Development/Afrique et développement Vol.XXVI, Nos 3&4, 2001: 149-182
    • An Empirical Analysis of Food Security in Ethiopia: the Case of North Wello

      Assefa Demeke; G. Ramakrishna (CODESRIA, 2005-08-25)
      No Abstract Available Africa Development/Afrique et développement Vol.XXVII, Nos 1&2, 2002: 127-143
    • An Empirical Profile of Weak States in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Jennifer J Atiku-Abubakar; Yoku Shaw-Taylor (CODESRIA, 2005-08-26)
      No Abstract Available Africa Development/Afrique et développement Vol.XXVIII, Nos 3&4, 2003: 168-185