IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE
ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE
GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY
ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
COMBATING CLIMATE CHANGE
FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
MITIGATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE
ACCESS TO INFORMATION
CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION
FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE
CLIMATE CHANGE CHALLENGE
CAPITAL MARKETS DEVELOPMENT
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AbstractThis issues brief examines the challenges of monitoring financial flows related to climate change. The first part focuses on tracking, monitoring, and reporting various types of flows, primarily from official development assistance (ODA) and other public sources but also from private sources. The second part explores possible ways of tracking additionality in ODA flows, with the aim of stimulating global discussion on this issue. A more comprehensive support document on this topic can be found on the World Bank website at beta.worldbank.org/ climate change.
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Accessing International Climate Change Related Finance in Latin America and the CaribbeanWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-10-03)Financing projects and programs to mitigate impacts of, and adapt to, the climate change is a matter of necessity not choice. This green expenditure policy note looks at factors facilitating the access to international financial instruments for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) countries that support mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. This policy note explores two questions: (i) does the quality of government institutions matter for enabling action aimed at mitigation or adaptation to the climate change?; and (ii) what financial instruments are available to governments in addition to own resources to address climate change challenges? This policy note aims to present them with advice on how to achieve greater access to international financing or co-financing of projects supporting renewable and alternative energy generation for transport, agriculture, housing, preservation of unique ecosystems, and other projects supporting sustainable development. This policy note describes the climate challenges facing the LAC region and then discusses the various climate financing flows. It discusses the factors affecting LAC countries' access to climate financing, and how countries can apply to several of the principal global and regional climate funds. The objective is to disseminate knowledge that will help governments of all LAC countries, and particularly finance ministries, understand and access new climate funds and financing mechanisms. The policy note consists of three parts: part one reviews the global landscape of the climate change financing for mitigation and adaptation and emerging trends, identifies various financial instruments, and presents an overview of the LAC's share of available finances from several public financing sources, both bilateral and multilateral. Part two reviews two case studies for Bolivia and El Salvador that demonstrate how each of these countries addresses environmental challenges through its policies, institutional systems and involvement of the civil society. Part three includes technical annexes, which represent a compilation of technical information presenting main climate change financial instruments. A list of global and specialized climate funds of possible interest to LAC countries appear in annex one. A complementary list of climate finance instruments appears in annex two, in which climate funds as well as financial tools are named, described, and categorized according to their primary purpose. A more detailed description of several of the largest climate funds including when such funds were founded, their purpose, and eligibility requirements are presented in annex three. Annex four provides a step-by-step description of how to apply to the largest climate funds. Annex five lists the LAC projects that have been supported by Global Environment Facility (GEF) by country.
Adaptation to Climate Change -- Vulnerability Assessment and Economic Aspects : Plurinational State of BoliviaWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-03-14)The Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) study estimates that it will cost $75 - $100 billion each year for developing countries to adapt to climate change from 2010 to 2050 (World Bank 2009a). The study funded by the governments of the Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Switzerland has two specific objectives. The first is to develop a global estimate of adaptation coststo inform the international community s efforts on how to tailor adequate and sustainable support regarding new and additional resources to help vulnerable developing countries meet adaptation costs. The second objective is to support decision makers in developing countries to better evaluate and assess the risks posed by climate change and to better design strategies to adapt to climate change. The EACC study includes a global track to meet the first study objective and a case study track to meet the second objective. The country track comprises seven countries: Ethiopia, Mozambique, Ghana, Bangladesh, Vietnam, The Plurinational State of Bolivia, and Samoa.
Adapting to Climate Change in Europe and Central Asia : Lessons from Recent Experiences and Suggested Future DirectionsWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-06-28)Like other regions, Eastern Europe and Central Asia is vulnerable to climate change and its potential socioeconomic impacts. While all countries are facing warmer temperatures, a changing hydrology, and more extreme events (for example, floods and droughts) and are concerned about the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, they differ in their financial and institutional capacities to respond. Therefore, especially for the most vulnerable countries in the region (for example, those in Central Asia and southern Europe), adapting to climate risk adds a new dimension to the challenges of development, but also provides an opportunity to revisit priorities and accelerate reforms. The Europe and Central Asia (ECA) Region of the World Bank has been actively working on climate-related projects and has advanced a number of initiatives in response to climate change since the 1990s. Nevertheless, up until a few years ago the region's focus was mainly on emissions reduction (mitigation), rather than on helping countries respond to existing or expected impacts from climate change through adjustments in natural or human systems. But more recently, adding focus on climate adaptation had led ECA to initiate a program of analytical work and pilot investment projects to help develop the information and knowledge base necessary to help build staff skills as well as better respond to client needs.