THE TIMAR SYSTEM IN THE SERBIAN LANDS FROM 1450 TO 1550: WITH A SPECIAL SURVEY ON THE TIMAR SYSTEM IN THE SANJAK OF SMEDEREVO / 1450’DEN 1550’YE KADAR SIRP TOPRAKLARINDA TIMAR SİSTEMİ: SEMENDİRE SANCAĞI’NDA TIMAR SİSTEMİ ÜZERİNDE ÖZEL BİR ANKET İLE
sanjak of Smenderova
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AbstractRelying on the Ottoman census books for various Ottoman provinces, which had been part of the medieval Serbian states, this paper presents a survey of timar organization in the Serbian lands during the first century of Ottoman rule and argues that while Christian sipahis were an integral part of the sipahi organization during the early period of Ottoman rule, their numbers gradually declined. The article pays special attention to the issue of the Christian sipahis. Since a range of census books had been preserved for the sanjak of Smederevo, this province was chosen as the case study to explain the most important issues regarding the functioning of the timar system. Osmanlı Devleti’nin Sırbistan topraklarındaki çeşitli sancaklara ait sayım defterlerine dayanarak yapılan bu çalışma, Osmanlı Devleti’nin Sırbistan topraklarındaki hakimiyetinin ilk yüzyılında uyguladığı tımar sistemini inceleyerek, Osmanlı idaresinin ilk döneminde Hıristiyan sipahilerin, sipahi sisteminin önemli bir kısmını teşkil ettiğini ancak zamanla Hıristiyan sipahi sayısının azaldığını tespit etmektedir. Makale Semendire Sancağı’nda uygulanan tımar sistemini örnek alarak, Hıristiyan sipahileri ve Sırbistan’daki tımar sisteminin işleyişini açıklamaktadır
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Urinary tract infections in Romanian patients with diabetes: prevalence, etiology, and risk factorsChiţă T; Timar B; Muntean D; Bădițoiu L; Horhat F; Hogea E; Moldovan R; Timar R; Licker M (Dove Medical Press, 2016-12-01)Teodora Chiţă,1,2 Bogdan Timar,1,2 Delia Muntean,1,2 Luminiţa Bădiţoiu,1,3 Florin Horhat,1,2 Elena Hogea,1 Roxana Moldovan,1,3 Romulus Timar,1,2 Monica Licker1,2 1Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, 2Pius Brinzeu Emergency Hospital, 3Regional Centre of Public Health, Timisoara, Romania Aim: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have an increased risk of infections, especially urinary tract infections (UTIs). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and etiology of UTIs and identify the risk factors for their development in patients with DM. Patients and methods: In this retrospective, noninterventional study, the medical records of 2,465 adult patients with DM who were hospitalized in a Diabetes Clinic were reviewed. Data regarding the presence of UTI and possible associated risk factors were collected and their possible relation was analyzed. The study protocol and procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of Timişoara Emergency Hospital. All data were collected and analyzed using SPSS v.17 statistical software. Results: The prevalence of UTIs in patients with DM was 12.0% (297 cases), being higher in females than in males and higher in patients with type 2 DM compared with patients with type&nbsp;1 DM. In univariate logistic regression analysis, risk factors associated with UTIs were female gender, age, type&nbsp;2 DM, longer duration of DM, and the presence of chronic kidney disease and coronary artery disease. Multivariate analysis identified age, duration of DM, and metabolic control (hemoglobin A1c levels) as independent risk factors for UTIs. The gram-negative bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae family were predominant, with Escherichia coli being the most frequent of them (70.4%). Conclusion: UTIs are a frequent condition associated with DM. It is necessary to improve the care and the screening of UTIs in patients with DM to prevent the occurrence of possible associated severe renal complications. Keywords: urinary tract infections, diabetes mellitus, epidemiology, incidence
The Correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and Academic Achievement of Preclinical and Clinical Medical Students at Kermanshah University of Medical SciencesVida Sepahi; Mohammad Rasool Khazaei; Ahmad Khoshay; Shirin Iranfar; Mehnoush Timare (Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2014-09-01)Introduction: Critical thinking skill is an essential factor for success in today’s rapidly developing world. The present study was carried out to compare the association between critical thinking disposition and academic achievement in preclinical and clinical medical students. Methods: This study was descriptive-correlational in which the sample included 259 medical students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences selected through stratified random sampling. The standard critical thinking disposition inventory (with validity of 0.8 and the students’ report card grades as criterion for academic achievement) was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Kolmogrov-Smirnov and correlation coefficient tests. Results: The mean of critical thinking disposition in the preclinical stage was 209.08±26.24 indicating a significant correlation with academic achievement (p=0.003, r=-2.64). In the clinical stage, however, the mean of critical thinking disposition was 214.07±28.15 which showed no significant correlation with academic achievement. Moreover, the mean of critical thinking disposition and its components in preclinical and clinical stages revealed not significant correlation and merely curiosity component showed a significant correlation (p=0.04). Conclusion: The results of the present study showed no correlation between critical thinking disposition and academic achievement in the clinical stage; however, this correlation was negatively significant in the preclinical stage.
Should We Reconsider Lung Transplantation Through Uncontrolled Donation After Circulatory Death?Suzuki, Y.; Tiwari, J. L.; Lee, J.; Diamond, J.M.; Blumenthal, N. P.; Carney, K.; Borders, C.; Strain, J.; Alburger, G.W.; Jackson, D.; et al. (2014-02-06)Lung transplantation through controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) has slowly gained universal acceptance with reports of equivalent outcomes to those through donation after brain death. In contrast, uncontrolled DCD (uDCD) lung use is controversial and requires ethical, legal and medical complexities to be addressed in a limited time. Consequently, uDCD lung use has not previously been reported in the United States. Despite these potential barriers, we present a case of a patient with multiple gunshot wounds to the head and the body who was unsuccessfully resuscitated and ultimately became an uDCD donor. A cytomegalovirus positive recipient who had previously consented for CDC high-risk, DCD and participation in the NOVEL trial was transplanted from this uDCD donor, following 3 hours of ex vivo lung perfusion. The postoperative course was uneventful and the recipient was discharged home on day 9. While this case represents a “best-case scenario,” it illustrates a method for potential expansion of the lung allograft pool through uDCD after unsuccessful resuscitation in hospitalized patients.