• A construct of code effectiveness: empirical findings and measurement properties

      Roberts-Lombard, Mornay; Mpinganjira, Mercy; Wood, Greg; Svensson, Göran (AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2016-10-11)
      The purpose of the study is to examine and describe the use of codes of ethics in companies operating South Africa. The population included the company secretaries of the top 500 companies operating in the South African corporate sector. The findings stipulate that South African companies need to understand that their employees are diverse in beliefs and opinions and as a result do not all have a similar ethical value system. Therefore, ethical education is imperative to ensure a stronger focus on the offering of ethics programmes aligned with the business philosophy of the company.
    • A framework for managing and assessing ethics in Namibia: An internal audit perspective

      Angermund, Nolan; Standard Bank, Namibia; Plant, Kato; University of Pretoria (SUNMeDIA, 2017-11-29)
      The Namibian Governance Code was implemented in 2014 and calls for organisations to manage ethics effectively. This study proposes an ethics framework that can be used by management to build an ethical culture and used by internal auditors to assess the effectiveness of an organisation’s ethical culture. Data was collected from managers and senior internal auditors in the financial services industry, based on their views of the proposed ethics framework. Management agreed that such a framework could contribute to building an ethical organisational culture because there is a lack of guidance available. Internal auditors agreed that the framework could assist the IAF in assessing ethics. However, it appears that this practice in Namibia is limited to an assessment of the codes of conduct only. Furthermore, there appears to be a lack of reporting on ethics performance to stakeholders, primarily because participants’ organisations did not implement integrated reporting as yet.
    • A New Zealand and Australian overview of ethics and sustainability in SMEs

      Collins, Eva; University of Waikato Management School; Dickie, Carolyn; Curtin University of Technology, School of Management, Perth; Weber, Paull; Curtin University of Technology, School of Management, Perth (SUNMeDIA, 2014-07-29)
      There is a dearth of research on ethics and sustainability related to SMEs in New Zealand and Australia. This paper begins by giving a definition of SMEs in New Zealand and Australia, which both differ somewhat from international definitions. The role of SMEs in New Zealand and Australian society is discussed and a description of one study in each country covering SMEs and sustainability is presented. Both studies found that owner-managers undertake a number of triple bottom line activities, without overtly identifying these actions as sustainable practice. At the same time, both studies showed that an over-riding focus on the financial bottom-line may be a significant barrier to SMEs adopting further sustainability practices. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in the area of ethical and sustainable business practice in SMEs in Australia and New Zealand, identifying some promising areas of future investigation. 
    • A New Zealand and Australian overview of ethics and sustainability in SMEs

      Collins, Eva; Dickie, Carolyn; Weber, Paull (BEN-Africa, 2009-11-01)
      There is a dearth of research on ethics and sustainability related to SMEs in New Zealand and Australia. This paper begins by giving a definition of SMEs in New Zealand and Australia, which both differ somewhat from international definitions. The role of SMEs in New Zealand and Australian society is discussed and a description of one study in each country covering SMEs and sustainability is presented. Both studies found that owner-mangers undertake a number of triple bottom line activities, without overtly identifying these actions as sustainable practice. At the same time, both studies showed that an over-riding focus on the financial bottom-line may be a significant barrier to SMEs adopting further sustainability practices. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in the area of ethical and sustainable business practice in SMEs in Australia and New Zealand, identifying some promising areas of future investigation. Key words: SMEs, New Zealand, Australia, ethics, sustainability
    • A tough line to work through’: Ethical ambiguities in a South African SME

      Vivier, Elmé; Human Sciences Research Council, Democracy, Governance and Service Delivery Programme, Pretoria (SUNMeDIA, 2014-07-17)
      The unique contexts and experiences of SMEs have recently been taken up as a gap within business ethics scholarship. In this exploratory paper, I aim to contribute to the knowledge of ethics within SMEs through an in-depth case study comprising interviews, site visits and document analysis of a South African SME. The paper examines the SMEs’ three owners’ perceptions of ethics and corporate social responsibility, as well as the ethical challenges arising from their employee relations. The case illuminates the deep uncertainties and contradictions that permeate the owners’ values and practices and points to ethical decision-making as a process of reflection and moral imagination. 
    • A typology for the categorisation of ethical leadership research

      Pietersen, Charlotte (AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2018-11-16)
      The paper introduces an expanded typology of research approaches applicable to the field of ethical leadership, namely: theoretical-integrative, systematic-analytical,  narrative-interpretive, and action-advocacy. An illustrative review identified clear examples of this framework for categorising types of research on ethical leadership. It is concluded that the investigation shows the applicability of a more nuanced perspective on research in the field of ethical leadership. The analysis provides support for the use of the typology beyond the customary quantitative and qualitative dichotomy.
    • Academic dishonesty and whistleblowing in a higher education institution: A sociological analysis

      Radulovic, Ugljesa; Uys, Tina (AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2019-12-11)
      High rates of academic dishonesty are a concern, and whistleblowing is a mechanism that can curb the incidence thereof. This study attempted to identify the variables associated with the reporting of academic dishonesty, framing itself within the reasoned action approach. It entailed a survey with a sample of 405 undergraduate sociology students. Data was collected by means of self-administered structured questionnaire. Five factors mediate the willingness to report: students’ general honesty; their level of academic honesty; the justification for committing academic dishonesty; the personal impact of reporting; and the adherence to principles as an influence on reporting. Students with higher degrees of general honesty were more willing to report, the fear of retaliation contributed to an unwillingness to report, and institutional rules; norms and procedures influenced willingness to report.
    • Accountability challenges in public–private partnerships from a South African perspective

      Fombad, Madeleine C.; Department of Information Science at University of South Africa (UNISA), Pretoria (SUNMeDIA, 2014-07-17)
      One of the potential benefits of public–private partnerships (PPPs) is its capacity to enhance account- ability. Although the South African government has made several efforts to address the need for fairness in service delivery and improve accountability in procurement, accountability remains a challenge in PPPs in South Africa and most other countries. If PPPs are to play their role in infrastructure development and service delivery, and thus serve public interests, the problem of accountability must be addressed. This paper attempts to identify some of the accountability challenges in PPPs, together with a literature review, to provide some future perspectives on PPPs in South Africa. 
    • An adapted measure of ethical climate in organisations – a South African study

      Grobler, Anton; Professor - Unisa Graduate School of Business Leadership (SUNMeDIA, 2017-05-10)
      A study was conducted to analyse the ethical climate typology of the Ethical Climate Questionnaire empirically, in order to develop a unique South African typology. This typology was tested for the equivalence of the construct between the private and public sector. A three ethical climate type solution was found (in contrast with the initial nine, and later five type typology). The results suggest that the construct is equivalent for both the private and public sectors. The findings could be used as a foundation for future studies, as well as for ethical climate measurement within the South African context.
    • An African Theory of Good Leadership

      Metz, Thaddeus (AFRICAN SUN MeDIA, 2018-11-16)
      This article draws on the indigenous African tradition of philosophy to ground a moral-philosophical theory of leadership that is intended to rival accounts in the East Asian and Western traditions. After providing an interpretation of the characteristically sub-Saharan value of communion, the article advances a philosophical account of a good leader as one who creates, sustains, and enriches communal relationships and enables others to do so. The article then applies this account to a variety of topics, including what the proper final end of an organization is, how decisions ought to be made within it, who counts as a stakeholder, and how to deal with non-performing or misbehaving employees. For each topic, the article notes respects in which the African theory of good leadership entails approaches that differ from other, more internationally familiar ones, and suggests that its implications are prima facie attractive relative to them. 
    • An evaluation of the reporting on ethics and integrity of selected listed motor vehicle companies

      Smit, Anet Magdalena; North-West University; Bierman, Elizabeth J; North-West University, South Africa (SUNMeDIA, 2017-11-29)
      Transparency in reporting has become very important and various stakeholders expect companies to disclose sensitive information, such as ethical aspects, integrity and anti-corruption information. Any indication of corruption can be detrimental when trying to attract foreign investors to invest in a country. These disclosure practices could place remarkable pressure on a company that needs to portray a positive image to their stakeholders. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the reporting on ethics, integrity and anti-corruption of companies in the motor vehicle manufacturing sector. Content analysis was used as the research method. A checklist was compiled based on the different frameworks and country requirements. The results of the evaluation indicate that companies understand the importance of the governance aspects such as ethics and integrity and some also provide training on the relevant codes and policies. However the disclosure on corruption-related incidents within the companies is poor and not sufficient information is evident from the reports.
    • An overview of empirical research on ethics in entrepreneurial firms within the United States

      Baucus, Melissa S.; University of Louisville College of Business, Kentuky; Cochran, Philip L.; Indiana University Kelley School of Business, Indiana (SUNMeDIA, 2014-07-29)
      Scholars recognise that entrepreneurs may encounter different ethical issues and pressures than managers in larger corporations. This has fostered empirical research aimed at assessing ethics in entrepreneurial settings in the United States. Our emphasis on empirical research with little attention paid to purely conceptual papers allows us to highlight the narrow definition of entrepreneurship used in the US and how US researchers distinguish between entrepreneurship and other types of small businesses. This differs greatly from many other countries, especially those in which researchers equate entrepreneurship with the study of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Researchers in the US often distinguish ethics from corporate social responsibility (CSR), corporate social performance (CSP), stakeholder theory and stakeholder management with different theoretical models proposed in each of these areas. After discussing these various definitional issues, we review the empirical research on ethics in entrepreneurial firms, discussing what the results tell us, identifying gaps in prior research and concluding with recommendations for future research that draws more heavily on theoretical frameworks in the field of ethics. 
    • An overview of empirical research on ethics in entrepreneurial firms within the United States

      Baucus, Melissa S.; Cochran, Philip L. (BEN-Africa, 2009-11-01)
      Scholars recognize that entrepreneurs may encounter different ethical issues and pressures than managers in larger corporations. This has fostered empirical research aimed at assessing ethics in entrepreneurial settings in the United States. Our emphasis on empirical research with little attention paid to purely conceptual papers allows us to highlight the narrow definition of entrepreneurship used in the U.S. and how U.S. researchers distinguish between entrepreneurship and other types of small businesses. This differs greatly from many other countries, especially those in which researchers equate entrepreneurship with the study of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Researchers in the U.S. often distinguish ethics from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Corporate Social Performance (CSP), stakeholder theory and stakeholder management with different theoretical models proposed in each of these areas. After discussing these various definitional issues, we review the empirical research on ethics in entrepreneurial firms, discussing what the results tell us, identifying gaps in prior research and concluding with recommendations for future research that draws more heavily on theoretical frameworks in the field of ethics. Key words: ethics, entrepreneurship, ethical attitudes, ethical issues
    • Antecedents and current situation of humanistic management

      Melé, Domènec; Department of Business Ethics, IESE Business School, University of Navarra (SUNMeDIA, 2014-07-17)
      Humanistic management is generally presented as an alternative perspective to the economic paradigm in management and organisational theories. We find both humanism and economicism in the first stages of modern management, and they still persist at the beginning of the 21st century. This paper reviews the antecedents and current situation of humanistic management. Although economicism is still dominant, it has received severe criticism and several management approaches discussed here can contribute to further development of humanistic management. These include person-organisation fit, peoples’ involvement in organisations, the consideration of business as a human community, comprehensive approaches to decision-making, stakeholder management, values-based management, as well as ethics and corporate responsibility in management, personal competencies and positive organisational scholarship. 
    • Attitudes of accounting students towards ethics, continuous professional development and lifelong learning

      Els, Gideon; Department of Finance and Investment Management, University of Johannesburg (SUNMeDIA, 2014-07-29)
      With a myriad of corporate scandals involving fraud and theft across the world, the auditing profession has been put under the spotlight with the prominence of promoting an ethical attitude within the profession and amongst its members. By way of an empirical study conducted with a group of students at a leading university in South Africa, it was found that the necessity for change and CPD are concepts not collectively agreed upon by all within the profession, even more so when it comes to a group of final-year undergraduate students at this university. This article provides a series of recommendations regarding the improvement of the current teaching and learning model in order to include a CPD approach when it comes to ethics. 
    • Attitudes of accounting students towards ethics, continuous professional development and lifelong learning

      Els, Gideon (BEN-Africa, 2009-11-01)
      With a myriad of corporate scandals involving fraud and theft across the world, the auditing profession has been put under the spotlight with the prominence of promoting an ethical attitude within the profession and amongst its members. By way of an empirical study conducted with a group of students at a leading university in South Africa, it was found that the necessity for change and CPD (continued professional development) are concepts not collectively agreed upon by all within the profession, even more so when it comes to a group of final-year undergraduate students at this university. This article provides a series of recommendations regarding the improvement of the current teaching and learning model in order to include a CPD approach when it comes to ethics.
    • Attitudes of management students towards workplace ethics: A comparative study between South Africa and Cyprus

      Thomas, Adèle; Department of Business Management, University of Johannesburg; Krambia- Kapardis, Maria; Zopiatis, Anastasios (SUNMeDIA, 2014-07-29)
      In order to understand attitudes towards work- related ethics and the teaching of business ethics in management programmes at universities, a survey was conducted with management students at two universities, one in the Republic of Cyprus (hereafter referred to as Cyprus) and the other in the Republic of South Africa (hereafter referred to as South Africa). An attempt was also made to investigate whether such differences, if any, were linked to differences in national culture. The findings indicate that no significant differences between the two samples exist on four of the five dimensions of national culture (Hofstede, 1994) and, accordingly, differences in attitudes towards workplace ethical issues cannot be said to be linked to this variable. Significant differences were found between the two samples on certain questionnaire items that related to workplace practices with the Cypriot sample, more so than the South African sample, appearing to be willing to engage in certain workplace practices that would be deemed unethical in society. It is recommended that ethics education be integral to a business curriculum and that teaching methodologies explore ways in which to develop moral reasoning in students. 
    • Attitudes of management students towards workplace ethics: A comparative study between South Africa and Cyprus

      Thomas, Adele; Krambia-Kapardis, Maria; Zopiatis, Anastasios (BEN-Africa, 2008-12-16)
      In order to understand attitudes towards work-related ethics and the teaching of business ethics in management programmes at universities, a survey was conducted with management students at two universities, one in the Republic of Cyprus (hereafter referred to as Cyprus) and the other in the Republic of South Africa (hereafter referred to as South Africa). An attempt was also made to investigate whether such differences, if any, were linked to differences in national culture. The findings indicate that no significant differences between the two samples exist on four of the five dimensions of national culture (Hofstede, 1994) and, accordingly, differences in attitudes towards workplace ethical issues cannot be said to be linked to this variable. Significant differences were found between the two samples on certain questionnaire items that related to workplace practices with the Cypriot sample, more so than the South African sample, appearing to be willing to engage in certain workplace practices that would be deemed unethical in society. It is recommended that ethics education be integral to a business curriculum and that teaching methodologies explore ways in which to develop moral reasoning in students.
    • Balancing corporate and social interests:

      Rossouw, Deon (GJ) (BEN-Africa, 2008-12-16)
      The claim is often made that corporate governance is an attempt to balance corporate interests with individual and societal interests. Lord Adrian Cadbury, who chaired the Cadbury Commission that produced the Cadbury Report on Corporate Governance in the UK, claims that the objective of corporate governance “is to align as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, corporations and society”. This paper will test whether this claim can be substantiated on the theoretical and practice level. To test this claim on the theoretical level the concept of corporate governance will be analysed in order to determine whether the said balance is implied by the concept of corporate governance. In order to determine whether the claim find support in corporate governance practices around the world, six continental or regional reports on the relationship between business ethics and corporate governance, representative of the various regions of the world (Africa, Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Japan, Latin America and North America), will be analysed critically. On the basis of this conceptual and corporate governance practice analysis an assessment will be made of whether corporate governance is about "align[ing] as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, corporations and society”.
    • Balancing corporate and social interests: Corporate governance theory and practice

      Rossouw, G. J.; Business Ethics Network of Africa (BEN-Africa); Philosophy Department, University of Pretoria (SUNMeDIA, 2014-07-29)
      The claim is often made that corporate governance is an attempt to balance corporate interests with individual and societal interests. Lord Adrian Cadbury, who chaired the Cadbury Commission that produced the Cadbury Report on Corporate Governance in the UK, claims that the objective of corporate governance “is to align as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, corporations and society”. This paper will test whether this claim can be substantiated on the theoretical and practice level. To test this claim on the theoretical level the concept of corporate governance will be analysed in order to determine whether the said balance is implied by the concept of corporate governance. In order to determine whether the claim find support in corporate governance practices around the world, six continental or regional reports on the relationship between business ethics and corporate governance, representative of the various regions of the world (Africa, Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Japan, Latin America and North America), will be analysed critically. On the basis of this conceptual and corporate governance practice analysis an assessment will be made of whether corporate governance is about “align[ing] as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, corporations and society”.